Exposure to Mosquito Repellents Causes Profound Development Defects and Induces Oxidative Stress in ZebrafishFunding The financial support from Nitte (Deemed to be University) through the intramural research grant (NUSR2/2018/10/50) to the first and the fifth author is gratefully acknowledged.
Objective The study was designed to investigate the effects of commercially available mosquito repellents on embryonic development of zebrafish.
Materials and Methods Transfluthrin is a type I pyrethroid present in all commercial mosquito and insect repellents. Pyrethrins are neurotoxins that target the nervous system of insects. Three popular brands of liquid vaporizer repellents coded as compound A, B, and C that contained transfluthrin, ranging from 0.88 to 1.6% w/w, were used in this study. The effects of these compounds on the embryonic development of zebrafish were investigated. In addition, the ability of transfluthrin to induce oxidative stress was examined by analyzing the generation of reactive oxygen species in exposed embryos.
Results The exposure to mosquito repellents resulted in extensive morphological defects in zebrafish embryos. The severity of the anomalies correlated with the concentration of transfluthrin in the repellents. Exposure to pure transfluthrin generated high levels of reactive oxygen species in zebrafish embryos, suggesting the induction of oxidative stress.
Conclusion Liquid vaporizer repellents are generally used for control of mosquitos and are common in many households. This study demonstrated that its exposure to mosquito repellents causes severe morphological defects and embryonic lethality in zebrafish. The study also showed that transfluthrin, the active insecticide in these repellents, induces oxidative stress in zebrafish.
03 September 2020 (online)
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