Group A Rotavirus G1P Associated Fatalities in Diarrheic Nigerian Infants, Possible Impact of Enterovirus Environmental Enteric Dysfunction, and Implications for Rota-VaccinologyFunding None.
Group A rotavirus (RVA) diarrhea disease and mortality are yet unabated, particularly in developing countries. As global knowledge of specific strains associated with infant mortality is crucial for successful vaccination efforts, candidate RVA strains detected in mortality and fatal cases of severely diarrheic hospitalized infants in Akure, Nigeria were investigated.
Fecal samples from comatose patients were tested for RVAs, other diarrhea viruses, and enteric bacterial pathogens. Genomic dsRNA was extracted from 10% rotavirus positive stool suspension, the VP4 and VP7 genes were reverse transcribed and amplified by one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyped by seminested multiplex PCR. Amplicons were sequenced, aligned by ClustalW, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted in MEGA6. Sequences data were deposited to GenBank and DDBJ.
Medical examination and microbiological analyses upheld viral diarrhea. EIA revealed RVA and enterovirus. PCR identified virulent RVA strain GIP whose VP7 nucleotide sequences shared a common cluster with Cuban isolate G1P, while the VP4 P sequences were related to Asian strains. Reassortant RVA G1P was found in fatal diarrhea cases and mortality of a Nigerian child. RVA coinfection with enterovirus and associated biomarkers of environmental enteric dysfunction in infantile diarrhea should henceforth be evaluated. Current rotavirus vaccines may fare badly against the prevailing virulent strains. The disease severity and outcome necessitates a wider epidemiological study, a review and inclusion of the P genotype in future rotavirus vaccines.
Received: 11 October 2019
Accepted: 10 July 2020
23 September 2020 (online)
© 2020. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Stuttgart · New York
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