Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2020; 33(06): 391-397
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1715493
Original Research

Effect of Stifle Flexion Angle on the Repeatability of Real-Time Elastosonography of the Patellar Ligament in Medium- to Large-Breed Dogs

1  Small Animal Hospital, College of Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
,
Maurizio Longo
2  Division of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, The University of Edinburgh, The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Hospital for Small Animals, Roslin, United Kingdom
3  CTO Veterinario, Arenzano, Genoa, Italy
,
Catrina Pennington
2  Division of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, The University of Edinburgh, The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Hospital for Small Animals, Roslin, United Kingdom
,
Tiziana Liuti
2  Division of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, The University of Edinburgh, The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Hospital for Small Animals, Roslin, United Kingdom
,
Linda R. Morrison
4  The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and Roslin Institute, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, The University of Edinburgh, Roslin, United Kingdom
,
Helen Brown
4  The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and Roslin Institute, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, The University of Edinburgh, Roslin, United Kingdom
,
4  The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and Roslin Institute, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, The University of Edinburgh, Roslin, United Kingdom
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.

Abstract

Objective The aims of this study were to describe the elastosonographic findings of the patellar ligament in healthy dogs >15 kg in different positions and determine the most appropriate stifle angle to perform elastosonography of the patellar ligament.

Study Design Eighteen clinically healthy dogs, weighing >15 kg, were prospectively recruited. B-mode ultrasound and real-time elastosonography of both patellar ligaments were performed on days 0 and 14. Elastosonography examinations were performed with the stifle in four positions: standing position, lateral recumbency with the stifle positioned at 135 degrees extension and in full passive flexion and extension.

Results The percentage hardness of the patellar ligament was significantly lower when the elastosonographic examination was performed with the dog standing, compared with the other positions (p < 0.005). The variability in the elastosonography readings for each stifle position was lowest when the dog was standing (89.32%).

Conclusion Elastosonography is a feasible technique for evaluating the elasticity of the normal canine patellar ligament in dogs >15 kg and would be a useful technique for investigating the mechanical changes within the patellar ligament following stifle surgery. Elastosonography of the patellar ligament should be performed with the dog standing to provide the most accurate elastosonograms with lowest variability between readings.

Authors' Contributions

J.M. participated in study design, enrolment of dogs, co-ordination of imaging, performed the statistical analysis, drafted and critically reviewed the manuscript. M.L. participated in study design, performed the imaging studies and critically revised the manuscript. C.P. participated in study design, co-ordination of imaging and critically revised the manuscript. T.L. participated in study design, supervised and reviewed the imaging and critically revised the manuscript. L.R.M. participated in study design, performed histological analysis of the patellar tendons and critically revised the manuscript. H.B. participated in study design, provided advice and recommendations on statistical analysis and critically reviewed the manuscript. D.C. participated in study design and critically revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.




Publication History

Received: 03 March 2020

Accepted: 05 June 2020

Publication Date:
17 September 2020 (online)

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