CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Revista Chilena de Ortopedia y Traumatología 2020; 61(02): 060-068
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1715160
Original Article | Artículo Original

Alargamiento Oseo Con Clavo Intramedular Magnetico Experiencia Preliminar y Lecciones Aprendidas

Bone Lengthening with Magnetic Intramedullary Nail Preliminary Experience and Learned Lessons
1   Jefe de la Unidad Ortopedia Y Traumatologia Infantil Clinica Las Condes, Santiago, Region Metropolitana, Chile
› Author Affiliations

Resumen

Objetivos Mostrar resultados, complicaciones y lecciones aprendidas utilizando el clavo intramedular magnético (IML, Intramedullary Magnetic Lengthener) en un grupo de pacientes sometidos a alargamiento óseo.

Pacientes y Métodos Entre enero 2017 y diciembre 2019, 9 pacientes (15 segmentos), edad entre 15 y 39 años, fueron sometidos a alargamiento óseo con IML: 5 pacientes tuvieron alargamiento femoral bilateral por talla baja, 1 paciente se sometió a alargamiento de Piernas bilateral por Tibia vara y acortamiento mesomélico y 3 recibieron alargamientos femorales unilaterales por discrepancia de longitud de extremidades. Todos fueron operados por el mismo cirujano, con técnica standard. Se indicó kinesiterapia al menos 5 veces por semana durante la fase de distracción.

Resultados En todos se logró el objetivo de alargamiento planteado. No hubo complicaciones intra ni postoperatorias graves (TVP, TEP, Embolia grasa), ni fallas del sistema distractor. Un paciente desarrolló contracturas articulares de ambas rodillas por no adhesión a Kinesiterapia. Ninguno requirió aporte de injerto óseo, sin embargo en 2 pacientes de alargamiento de Fémur bilateral, se presentó deformidad en varo, que hizo necesario recambio a clavo convencional y un paciente desarrolló una parálisis transitoria del Nervio Peroneo común.

Conclusiones El advenimiento de los IML significó un gran avance en el campo de la osteogènesis por distracción, sin embargo, aún se trata de un procedimiento complejo, que debe ser planificado cuidadosamente para minimizar los riesgos y complicaciones. Una selección meticulosa del paciente y la evaluación física y psicológica previa, son fundamentales para el éxito del procedimiento. Los casos bilaterales requieren de un seguimiento cercano, por el riesgo de falla del implante.

Abstract

Objective We show our results, complications and lessons learned using the Intramedullary Magnetic Lengthener (IML) in a group of patients who were subjected to bone lengthening.

Patients and Methods Between January 2017 and December 2019, 9 patients (15 segments), aged between 15 and 39 years, underwent bone lengthening with IML: 5 patients had bilateral femoral lengthening due to short stature, 1 patient had bilateral leg lengthening due to Tibia vara and mesomelic shortening and 3 had unilateral femoral lengthening for limb length discrepancy. All were operated by the same surgeon, with standard technique. Physical therapy was indicated at least 5 times per week during the distraction phase.

Results In every case, the proposed lengthening amount was achieved. There were no serious intraoperative or postoperative complications (DVT, Pulmonary Embolism, Fat Embolism), nor failures of the distractor system. One patient developed knee joint contracture due to non-adherence to Physical therapy. None required bone grafting, however, in 2 patients with bilateral Femur, a varus deformity appeared, which required nail exchange with a conventional trauma nail. One case developed a transit common Peroneal Nerve palsy.

Conclusions IMLs represent a great advance in the bone lengthening realm, however, it is still a complex procedure, which must be carefully planned to minimize risks and complications. Meticulous patient selection and prior physical and psychological evaluation are essential to the success of the procedure. Bilateral cases need a closer follow up, because implant failure is a potential risk.



Publication History

Received: 13 April 2020

Accepted: 19 June 2020

Article published online:
10 August 2020

© 2020. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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