COVID-19 and Neurological Manifestations
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which has taken the form of a pandemic. It mainly presents as fever, cough, shortness of breath involving respiratory system but neurological manifestations are increasingly being recognized worldwide and even virus RNA was demonstrated to be present in cerebrospinal fluid of a patient. SARS-CoV-2 involves both central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Virus can enter the neural tissue from hematological route or through retrograde transport from nerve endings. Physicians especially neurologists should be aware regarding neurological manifestations as patient can present with these conditions in emergency. We therefore reviewed the neurological diseases or complications associated with COIVID-19 in available literature.
06 July 2020 (online)
Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd.
A-12, Second Floor, Sector -2, NOIDA -201301, India
- 1 World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report - 111. Available at: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200510covid-19-sitrep-111.pdf?sfvrsn=1896976f_2. Accessed June 12, 2020
- 2 Li X, Geng M, Peng Y, Meng L, Lu S. Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19. J Pharm Anal 2020; 10 (02) 102-108
- 3 Li Z, Liu T, Yang N. et al. Neurological manifestations of patients with COVID-19: potential routes of SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion from the periphery to the brain. Front Med 2020; DOI: 10.1007/s11684-020-0786-5.
- 4 Mao L, Jin H, Wang M. et al. Neurologic manifestations of hospitalized patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Neurol 2020; DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1127.
- 5 Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y. et al. China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19. Clinical characteristics of Coronavirus ddisease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med 2020; 382 (18) 1708-1720
- 6 Chen T, Wu D, Chen H. et al. Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study. BMJ 2020; 368: m1091
- 7 Li MY, Li L, Zhang Y, Wang XS. Expression of the SARS-CoV-2 cell receptor gene ACE2 in a wide variety of human tissues. Infect Dis Poverty 2020; 9 (01) 45
- 8 Netland J, Meyerholz DK, Moore S, Cassell M, Perlman S. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection causes neuronal death in the absence of encephalitis in mice transgenic for human ACE2. J Virol 2008; 82 (15) 7264-7275
- 9 Dubé M, Le Coupanec A, Wong AHM, Rini JM, Desforges M, Talbot PJ. Axonal transport enables neuron-to-neuron propagation of human coronavirus OC43. J Virol 2018; 92 (17) e00404-e00418
- 10 Baig AM, Khaleeq A, Ali U, Syeda H. Evidence of the COVID-19 virus targeting the CNS: tissue distribution, host-virus interaction, and proposed neurotropic mechanisms. ACS Chem Neurosci 2020; 11 (07) 995-998
- 11 Gutiérrez-Ortiz C, Méndez A, Rodrigo-Rey S. et al. Miller Fisher Syndrome and polyneuritis cranialis in COVID-19. Neurology 2020; DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009619.
- 12 Huang C, Wang Y, Li X. et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. (published correction appears in Lancet. January 30, 2020). Lancet 2020; 395 (10223) 497-506
- 13 Moriguchi T, Harii N, Goto J. et al. A first case of meningitis/encephalitis associated with SARS-Coronavirus-2. Int J Infect Dis 2020; 94: 55-58
- 14 Ye M, Ren Y, Lv T. Encephalitis as a clinical manifestation of COVID-19. Brain Behav Immun 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.017.
- 15 Poyiadji N, Shahun G, Noujaim D, Stone M, Patel S, Griffith B. COVID-19 associated acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalopathy: CT and MRI features. Radiology 2020; DOI: 10.1148/radiol.2020201187.
- 16 Helms J, Kremer S, Merdji H. et al. Neurologic features in severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Engl J Med 2020; 382 (23) 2268-2270
- 17 Asadi-Pooya AA, Simani L. Central nervous system manifestations of COVID-19: A systematic review. J Neurol Sci 2020; 413 (April) 116832
- 18 Wichmann D, Sperhake JP, Lütgehetmann M. et al. Autopsy findings and Venous Thromboembolism in patients with COVID-19. Ann Intern Med 2020; DOI: 10.7326/M20-2003.
- 19 Varga Z, Flammer AJ, Steiger P. et al. Endothelial cell infection and endotheliitis in COVID-19. Lancet 2020; 395 (10234) 1417-1418
- 20 Levi M, Thachil J, Iba T, Levy JH. Coagulation abnormalities and thrombosis in patients with COVID-19. Lancet Haematol 2020; 7 (06) e438-e440
- 21 Zhao K, Huang J, Dai D, Feng Y, Liu L, Nie S. Acute myelitis after SARS-CoV-2 infection: a case report. MedRxiv 2020; DOI: 10.1101/2020.03.16.20035105.
- 22 Lechien JR, Chiesa-Estomba CM, De Siati DR. et al. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020; DOI: 10.1007/s00405-020-05965-1.
- 23 Parma V, Ohla K, Veldhuizen MG. et al. More than just smell-COVID19 is associated with severe impairment of smell, taste and chemesthesis. medRxiv 2020; DOI: 10.1101/2020.05.04.20090902.
- 24 Finsterer J, Stollberger C. Causes of hypogeusia/hyposmia in SARS-CoV2 infected patients. J Med Virol 2020; DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25903.
- 25 Dinkin M, Gao V, Kahan J. et al. COVID-19 presenting with ophthalmoparesis from cranial nerve palsy. Neurology 2020; DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009700.
- 26 Toscano G, Palmerini F, Ravaglia S. et al. Guillain-Barré Syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2. N Engl J Med 2020; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2009191.
- 27 Zhao C, Cao Z, Yang J, Xian K, Li X. Image feature correspondence selection: a comparative study and a new contribution. IEEE Trans Image Process 2020; 4422 (20) 2-3
- 28 Sedaghat Z, Karimi N. Guillain Barre syndrome associated with COVID-19 infection: A case report. J Clin Neurosci 2020; 76: 233-235