CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020; 24(03): e351-e358
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1714143
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Special Article COVID-19
Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The COVID-19 Pandemic and Planetary Health. A Critical Review of Epidemiology, Prevention, Clinical Characteristics and Treatments for Oral, Head and Neck Health Professionals. Do We Have a Roadmap?

1  Department of Morphological Sciences, Institute of Basic Health Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
2  Health Sciences Post Graduate Program, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
,
Airton Stein
3  Public Health Department, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
4  Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
,
Sérgio Sirena
4  Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
5  School of Medicine, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil
,
Enrique Barros
5  School of Medicine, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil
,
Julio Baldisserotto
6  School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
,
José Antônio Poli de Figueiredo
1  Department of Morphological Sciences, Institute of Basic Health Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
6  School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
,
1  Department of Morphological Sciences, Institute of Basic Health Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
,
Liviu Steier
7  University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America
,
Carlos Dora
8  School of Public Health, Columbia University, Columbia, NY, United States of America
9  Department of Public Health and the Environment at the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

04 June 2020

11 June 2020

Publication Date:
31 July 2020 (online)

Abstract

Introduction Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is potentially the greatest global public health crisis of this century. This disease emerged as an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown cause in Wuhan, the capital city of the Hubei province in China, in December 2019. Otolaryngologists, head and neck surgeons and dentists are at an increased risk of occupational disease.

Objective The present review summarizes currently published evidence of Covid-19 epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment and prevention. No proven effective treatments for this disease currently exist.

Data Synthesis COVID-19 started from a zoonotic transmission event associated with a large seafood market that also traded in live wild animals, and it soon became clear that efficient person-to-person transmission was also occurring. Symptoms are varied, and not all patients develop all of them.

Conclusion Social distancing seems to have been successful in several places in the world. However, this recommendation alone is not enough to contain the disease, and it is not a long-term solution. Large-scale testing by health professionals of representative samples of the population may give an estimate of the progression of the disease. Different treatments are under test and bring hope of a cure to the population. However, no current treatments (April 27, 2020) have been proven to be the key to success in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Planetary health is a useful concept to understand the current drivers of this pandemic and to draw a roadmap for science and healthcare that may guide actions to fight economic depression and ensure a healthy recovery.