CC BY 4.0 · Journal of Child Science 2020; 10(01): e53-e62
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1714113
Review Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

COVID-19 in Children: Present and Future Perspective, An Interim Review

1  Department of Pediatrics, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
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1  Department of Pediatrics, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
,
1  Department of Pediatrics, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
,
1  Department of Pediatrics, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
,
2  KIIT School of Biotechnology, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
,
1  Department of Pediatrics, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.
Further Information

Publication History

04 May 2020

26 May 2020

Publication Date:
29 July 2020 (online)

  

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected millions of people worldwide. However, the mechanism by which the pathogen affects children is not understood completely. Children so far accounted for only1 to 6.4% of diagnosed cases and the mortality rate is also less. Though clinical findings are similar to adults, with fever and respiratory symptoms being prevalent, fewer numbers of children appear to develop severe pneumonia. Observed attenuated response to the virus may possibly be due to decrease in the expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in lungs, repeated viral exposure, and not having any underlying chronic diseases or immunosuppression. Suggested treatment included oxygen supplementation, mechanical ventilation in severe cases, nutritional support, and maintaining fluids and electrolyte balances. Although, no definitive pharmacological therapy is available, various combination of drugs like hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, tocilizumab, and convalescent serum show promising result to an extent. As there is no specific therapeutic measure for this ailment, aggressive efforts are being made to develop a potential vaccine against the disease. Although few reports on epidemiology of COVID-19 in children have been published, comprehensive reports are lacking. The present article reviews on important issues such as epidemiological characteristics, postulations of milder disease, therapeutic aspect, and recent development of vaccination against COVID-19 in children.

Authors' Contributions

S.P., J.B., and N.M. developed the idea and concept. M.N. and J.P. conducted literature search and review. N.M., B.S., and S.P. drafted the manuscript and provided critical review. All authors read and approved the final manuscript for submission. The manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors and N.K.M. will correspond on behalf of all.