CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Eur J Dent 2020; 14(S 01): S123-S129
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713020
Review Article

COVID-19 Pandemic and Role of Human Saliva as a Testing Biofluid in Point-of-Care Technology

Hiba Hamid
1  Department of Oral Biology, Liaquat College of Medicine and Dentistry, Karachi, Pakistan
Zohaib Khurshid
2  Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Implantology, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
Necdet Adanir
3  Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
Muhammad S. Zafar
4  Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Medina Munawara, Saudi Arabia
5  Department of Dental Materials, Islamic International Dental College, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Sana Zohaib
6  Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
› Author Affiliations


Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has termed as a controllable pandemic, and the entire world has come to a standstill trying to mitigate the disease with health systems. Health care providers, around the globe, are fighting day and night. Currently, rapid testing is taking place with the help of nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal swab, bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum, urine, and blood. All these approaches are invasive or embarrassing to the infected person. It is observed that salivary glands are hosting severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) because of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and the detection of high viral loads in the saliva and is playing a crucial role in virus transmission, especially from individuals showing absolutely no symptoms. Saliva is proving to be a promising noninvasive sample specimen for the diagnosis of COVID-19, thus helping to monitor the infection and prevent it from further spreading by prompt isolation.

Publication History

Publication Date:
03 June 2020 (online)

© 2020. European Journal of Dentistry. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

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