CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · International Journal of Recent Surgical and Medical Sciences 2020; 6(01): 18-23
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1712815
Original Article

Comparative Study on Bone Mineral Densitometry in People Living with HIV with or without Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Tutan Das
1  Department of Medicine, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, India
,
Bhagyabati Devi
2  Department of Medicine, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, India
,
Ningthoukhongjam Reema
2  Department of Medicine, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, India
,
Thangjam Gautam Singh
3  Department of Radiodiagnosis, Shija Hospital, Imphal, India
› Author Affiliations
  

Abstract

Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a disease that affects millions of people globally and affects almost all the body systems including bone metabolism. Derangement of bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV patients is well established in international literature but least studied in India. Therefore, this study aims to determine the association between BMD change and HIV infection with or without antiretroviral therapy (ART) and compare the different regimens of ART.

Materials and Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine and ART Center of Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, India. A total of 50 HIV patients were screened by a central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) examination for measuring BMD. Correlation of BMD with a CD4 count, and different ART regimens were also studied.

Results In our study, majority of the patients (29 [58%]) had low BMD. Of the 29 patients, 18 (36%) had osteopenia and 11 (22%) had osteoporosis. Of the ART naïve patients, 81.8% have reduced BMD. Among different ART regimens, tenofovir-based regimes were mostly associated with low BMD (52.4%). A statistically significant association between low CD4 count and low BMD was found.

Conclusion Our study concluded that HIV infection is associated with bone loss and low BMD in people living with HIV (PLHIV) irrespective of its treatment with ART. PLHIV are at a greater risk of bone loss secondary to decreased BMD. Among the ART regimens, tenofovir-based regimens are mostly associated with low BMD. Therefore, all HIV patients should be screened by DEXA scan for BMD status, and timely intervention should be started.



Publication History

Publication Date:
23 May 2020 (online)

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