Verification of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Traditional Homeopathically Manufactured Metal (Cuprum metallicum) and Plant (Gelsemium sempervirens) Medicines and ControlsFunding This study has been funded entirely by private donations.
Background Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) proton relaxation is sensitive to the dynamics of the water molecule, H2O, through the interaction of the spin of the proton (1H) with external magnetic and electromagnetic fields. NMR relaxation times describe how quickly the spin of 1H, forced in a direction by an external electromagnetic field, returns to a normal resting position. As a result, such measurements allow us potentially to describe higher structuring of water in homeopathic medicines.
Objective The purpose of the present study was to verify whether specific NMR relaxation times could be measured in full lines of cH dynamizations of a metal (copper) and of a plant substance (Gelsemium sempervirens), compared with a solvent control, a potentized lactose control and a control prepared by simple dilution, in three production lines. It is aimed at verification of a previous publication (2017) on two new manufacturing lines of the same starting material and controls.
Materials and Methods To monitor dilution and potentization processes, measurements of 1H spin-lattice T1 and spin-spin T2 relaxation times were used. T1 and T2 relaxation times were measured at 25°C with a spin analyser working at a frequency of 20 MHz. To account for its possible role as a confounding factor, free oxygen was also measured in all samples, using a MicroOptode meter.
Results When the values of the three production lines were pooled, a statistically significant discrimination of NMR relaxation times between the medicines and their controls was confirmed. We found for copper cH and Gelsemium sempervirens cH a highly significant influence of the starting material (p = 0.008), a highly significant influence of level of dilution (p < 0.001), and a significant influence of the O2 concentration (p = 0.04).
Conclusions We have evidence of an obvious retention of a specific magnetic resonance signal when a substance (lactose, copper, Gelsemium) is diluted/potentized in pure water. This means that homeopathic solutions cannot be considered to be pure water. O2 is a covariant and not an explanatory variable: this factor itself is too weak to explain the NMR signal specificities in potentized samples. Homeopathic dilutions may thus have a specific material configuration governed not only by the potentized substance but also by the chemical nature of the containers, the chemical nature of dissolved gases and even by the electromagnetic environment. This sensitivity of homeopathically prepared medicines to electromagnetic fields may be amplified by the processes routinely applied during their preparation; because it occurs only when a dynamization has been performed, we may call this phenomenon “dynamic pharmacy”.
Keywordsnuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times - copper - Cuprum metallicum - Gelsemium sempervirens - water - homeopathy - potentization - dynamization - dynamic pharmacy - verification - confirmation
• The specific signature of homeopathic medicines in water – even in high dilutions – can be identified using NMR relaxation time measurements.
• Discriminance analysis between a simple dilution and homeopathic potentizations is possible.
• Homeopathic solutions cannot be considered to be pure water.
• The homeopathic potentization process may be called “dynamic pharmacy”.
• High free O2 concentrations in liquid homeopathic medicines partially hide the specific NMR signal.
Received: 09 January 2020
Accepted: 20 March 2020
02 July 2020 (online)
© 2020. Faculty of Homeopathy. This article is published by Thieme.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany
- 1 Van Wassenhoven M, Goyens M, Capieaux E, Devos P, Dorfman P. Nanoparticle characterisation of traditional homeopathically manufactured Cuprum metallicum and Gelsemium sempervirens medicines and controls. Homeopathy 2018; 107: 244-263
- 2 Bell IR, Koithan M. A model for homeopathic remedy effects: low dose nanoparticles, allostatic cross-adaptation, and time-dependent sensitization in a complex adaptive system. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012; 12: 191
- 3 Chikramane PS, Suresh AK, Bellare JR, Kane SG. Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: a nanoparticulate perspective. Homeopathy 2010; 99: 231-242
- 4 Rajendran ES. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopic studies of centesimal scale potencies of the homeopathic drug Lycopodium clavatum . Am J Hom Med. 2015; 108: 9-18
- 5 Bell IR, Muralidharan S, Schwartz GE. Nanoparticle characterization of traditional homoeopathically manufactured silver (Argentum Metallicum) medicines and placebo controls. Nanomed Nanotechnol 2015; 6: 4
- 6 Demangeat JL. Gas nanobubbles and aqueous nanostructures: the crucial role of dynamization. Homeopathy 2015; 104: 101-115
- 7 Mathie RT, Lloyd SM, Legg LA. et al. Randomised placebo-controlled trials of individualised homeopathic treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst Rev 2014; 3: 142
- 8 Editorial. The end of homeopathy. Lancet 2005; 366: 690
- 9 Demangeat JL. Nanosized solvent superstructures in ultramolecular aqueous dilutions: twenty years' research using water proton NMR relaxation. Homeopathy 2013; 102: 87-105
- 10 Van Wassenhoven M, Goyens M, Henry M, Capieaux E, Devos P. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance characterization of traditional homeopathically manufactured copper (Cuprum metallicum) and plant (Gelsemium sempervirens) medicines and controls. Homeopathy 2017; 106: 223-239
- 11 European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines, Council of Europe. European Pharmacopeia. Available at: https://www.edqm.eu/en/european-pharmacopoeia-ph-eur-10th-edition
- 12 Horton PM, Bonny L, Nicol AU, Kendrick KM, Feng JF. Applications of multi-variate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to multi-electrode array electrophysiology data. J Neurosci Methods 2005; 146: 22-41
- 13 Lehman A, O'Rourke N, Hatcher L, Stepanski EJ. JMP for Basic Univariate and Multivariate Statistics. 2nd ed. 2013
- 14 Mortimer CH. The oxygen content of air-saturated freshwaters over ranges of temperature and atmospheric pressure of limnological interest. Mitt Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol 1981; 22: 1-23
- 15 Conte RR, Berliocchi H, Lasne Y, Vernot G. Théorie des hautes dilutions et aspects expérimentaux. Ed Polytechnica; 1996. ; ISBN 2–84054–046–0
- 16 Bono I, Del Giudice E, Gamberale L, Henry M. Emergence of the coherence of liquid water. Water 2012; 4: 510-532
- 17 Henry M. The topological and quantum structure of zoomorphic water. In: Aqua Incognita: Why Ice Floats on Water and Galileo 400 Years on, P. Lo Nostro. BW Ninham, eds. Chap IX. Ballarat, Australia: Connor Court Publications; 2014: 197-239
- 18 Manzalini A, Galeazzi B. Explaining homeopathy with quantum electrodynamics. Homeopathy 2019; 108: 169-176