CC BY 4.0 · Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2020; 42(04): 188-193
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1709692
Original Article
Fetal Medicine
Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Frequency of Congenital Anomalies in the Brazilian Midwest and the Association with Maternal Risk Factors: Case-control Study

Frequência das anomalias congênitas no centro-oeste brasileiro e a associação com fatores de risco materno: estudo caso-controle
1  Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil
,
2  Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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1  Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

27 March 2019

02 March 2020

Publication Date:
24 April 2020 (online)

  

Abstract

Objective To evaluate the frequency of structural congenital anomalies (CAs) in the midwest of Brazil and its association with maternal risk factors.

Methods This was a prospective, observational, case-control study based on a hospital population. Pregnant women attended at a fetal medicine service in Brazil were analyzed in the period from October 2014 to February 2016.A total of 357 pregnant women were included, 223 of whom had fetuses with structural anomalies (group case), and 134 of whom had structurally normal fetuses (control group). The clinical history was made previous to prenatal consultation, and the diagnosis of the structural CA was performed through ultrasound.

Results A frequency of 64.27% (n = 223) of pregnant women with fetuses with structural anomalies was observed. The most frequent structural CAs were those of the central nervous system (30.94%), followed by anomalies of the genitourinary system (23.80%), and, finally, by multiple CAs (16.60%). The background of previous children with CAs (odds ratio [OR]: 3.85; p = 0.022), family history (OR: 6.03; p = < 0.001), and consanguinity between the progenitors (OR: 4.43; p = 0.034) influenced the occurrence of structural CA.

Conclusion The most frequent CAs are those of the central nervous system, followed by those of the genitourinary system, and then multiple anomalies. The maternal risk factors that may have influenced the occurrence of structural CA were previous children with CA, family history, and consanguinity among the parents.

Resumo

Objetivo Avaliar a frequência de anomalias congênitas (ACs) estruturais no centro-oeste brasileiro e a associação com fatores de risco maternos.

Métodos Estudo prospectivo, observacional, caso-controle, baseado em uma população hospitalar. Foram analisadas gestantes atendidas em um serviço de medicina fetal no Brasil, no período de outubro de 2014 a fevereiro de 2016. Foram analisadas 357 gestantes, dentre as quais 223 tiveram fetos com ACs estruturais (grupo controle) e 134 tiveram fetos estruturalmente normais (grupo controle). A história clínica foi feita antes da consulta de pré-natal, e o diagnóstico da AC estrutural foi realizado por ultrassonografia.

Resultados Observou-se uma frequência de 64,27% (n = 223) de gestantes com fetos com ACs estruturais. As ACs estruturais mais frequentes foram as do sistema nervoso central (30,94%), seguidas das anomalias do sistema gênito-urinário (23,80%), e, por fim, das ACs múltiplas (16,60%). Antecedentes de crianças com AC (razão de probabiliade [RP]: 3,85; p = 0,022), antecedentes familiares (RP: 6,03; p = < 0,001), e consanguinidade entre os grupos progenitores (RP: 4,43; p = 0,034) influenciaram a ocorrência de AC estrutural.

Conclusão As ACs mais frequentes foram as do sistema nervoso central, as do sistema gênito-urinário, e as ACs múltiplas. Os fatores de risco maternos que podem ter influenciado a ocorrência de AC estrutural foram antecedentes de crianças com AC, história familiar, e a consanguinidade entre os pais.

Contributions

Moraes C. L.: project development, data collection or management, data analysis, and manuscript writing/editing. Melo N. C.: data collection or management, data analysis, and manuscript writing/editing. Amaral W. N.: project development, manuscript writing, and critical review.