Comparison of antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacteria isolated from effluents in coastal districts of Karnataka, India
Downstream water systems provide for a conducive environment for horizontal gene transfer. The objective of this study was to determine the burden of antimicrobial resistance in waste water effluents from different sources and their impact on human health. Gram negative bacteria were isolated from 30 samples each of industrial, hospital and domestic effluents. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the 367 isolates from 90 effluent samples was determined by disc diffusion test and presence of antimicrobial resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. Resistance to ampicillin was 62% in hospital effluents and was higher than that recorded for industrial and domestic effluents. While the highest percentage of resistance to tetracycline was observed in isolates from industrial effluents (42%) a low of 9.5% was observed in hospital effluents. Antimicrobial resistance determinants present on mobile genetic elements were observed in a small fraction (~10%) of the resistant isolates. The resistance profile of isolates in effluents reflect the practices of different industries. Resistant isolates in domestic effluents could be a reflection of the indiscriminate use of antibiotics andthat many of the contents of disinfectants and cleaning agents routinely used may contain structural analogs of antimicrobials used in therapy. Though by phenotypic test a higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was recorded the genotypic study revealed the prevalence to be low. This could be due to the limited number of antimicrobial resistance genes included in this study.
Received: 18 April 2017
Accepted: 02 May 2017
21 April 2020 (online)
Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd.
A-12, Second Floor, Sector -2, NOIDA -201301, India
- 1 World Health Organization. WHO global strategy for containment of antimicrobial resistance. 2001.
- 2 Landers TF, Cohen B, Wittum TE, Larson EL. A review of antibiotic use in food animals: perspective, policy, and potential. Public health reports. 2012 Jan;127(1):4-22.
- 3 Moura A, Henriques I, Smalla K, Correia A. Wastewater bacterial communities bring together broad-host range plasmids, integrons and a wide diversity of uncharacterized gene cassettes. Research in microbiology. 2010 Feb 28;161(1):58-66.
- 4 Laht M, Karkman A, Voolaid V, Ritz C, Tenson T, Virta M, Kisand V. Abundances of tetracycline, sulphonamide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistance genes in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different waste load. PloS one. 2014 Aug 1;9(8):e103705..
- 5 Food and Drug Administration. Bacteriological analytical manual. Revision A.
- 6 Bej AK, Dicesare JL, Haff L, Atlas RM. Detection of Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. in water by using the polymerase chain reaction and gene probes for uid. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1991 Apr 1;57(4):1013-7.
- 7 Rahn K, De Grandis SA, Clarke RC, et al. Amplification of an invA gene sequence of Salmonella typhimurium by polymerase chain reaction as a specific method of detection of Salmonella. Molecular Cell Probes,1992; 6(4):271-279.
- 8 Taniguchi HA, Ohta HI, Ogawa MI, Mizuguchi YA. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin and thermolabile hemolysin genes. Journal of bacteriology. 1985 May 1;162(2):510-5.
- 9 Colomer-Lluch M, Jofre J, Muniesa M. Antibiotic resistance genes in the bacteriophage DNA fraction of environmental samples. PloS one. 2011 Mar 3;6(3):e17549.
- 10 Ma Y, Wilson CA, Novak JT, Riffat R, Aynur S, Murthy S, Pruden A. Effect of various sludge digestion conditions on sulfonamide, macrolide, and tetracycline resistance genes and class I integrons. Environmental science &technology. 2011 Aug 19;45(18):7855-61.
- 11 Robicsek A, Strahilevitz J, Sahm DF, Jacoby GA, Hooper DC. qnr prevalence in ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates from the United States. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2006 Aug 1;50(8):2872-4..
- 12 Chen X, Zhang W, Pan W, Yin J, Pan Z, Gao S, Jiao X. Prevalence of qnr, aac (6' )-Ib-cr, qepA, and oqxAB in Escherichia coli Isolates from Humans, Animals, and Environment. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2012 Mar 5:AAC-06191
- 13 Nordmann P, Poirel L, Carrër A, Toleman MA, Walsh TR. How to detect NDM-1 producers. Journal of clinical microbiology. 2011 Feb 1;49(2):718-21.
- 14 Park CH, Robicsek A, Jacoby GA, Sahm D, Hooper DC. Prevalence in the United States of aac (6' )-Ib-cr encoding a ciprofloxacin-modifying enzyme. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2006 Nov 1;50(11):3953-5.
- 15 Aali R, Nikaeen M, Khanahmad H, Hassanzadeh A. Monitoring and Comparison of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Their Resistance Genes in Municipal and Hospital Wastewaters. International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2014;5(7):887-894.
- 16 Gao L., Shi Y, Li W, Niu H, Liu J, Cai Y. Occurrence of antibiotics in eight sewage treatment plants in Beijing, China. Chemosphere 2010, 86, 665–671. 53.
- 17 Gibs J, Heckathorn HA, Meyer MT, Klapinski FR, Alebus M, Lippincott RL. Occurrence and partitioning of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two wastewater treatment plant effluents in Northern New Jersey, 2008. Science of the Total Environment. 2013 Aug 1;458:107-16.
- 18 Alam MZ, Aqil F, Ahmad I, Ahmad S. Incidence and transferability of antibiotic resistance in the enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2013 Sep;44(3):799- 806.
- 19 Hughes P, Heritage J. Antibiotic growth-promoters in food animals. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper. 2004:129-52.
- 20 Granados-Chinchilla F, Rodríguez C. Tetracyclines in Food and Feedingstuffs: From Regulation to Analytical Methods, Bacterial Resistance, and Environmental and Health Implications. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry. 2017 Jan 12;2017.
- 21 Antunes P, Machado J, Peixe L. Illegal use of nitrofurans in food animals: contribution to human salmonellosis? Clinical microbiology and infection. 2006 Nov 1;12(11):1047-9
- 22 Aiello AE, Marshall B, Levy SB, Della-Latta P, Larson E. Relationship between triclosan and susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from hands in the community. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2004 Aug 1;48(8):2973-9.