CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Health and Allied Sciences NU 2017; 07(01): 052-056
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1708696
Original Article

Evaluation of the effect of smokeless tobacco on periodontal health and oral hygiene status

Madhura Ramnath
1  Undergraduate student, Department of Periodontics, A B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Derelakatte, Karnataka
,
Nina Shenoy
2  Professor, Department of Periodontics, A B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Derelakatte, Karnataka
,
Reema M. Rao
3  Postgraduate Student, Department of Periodontics, A B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Derelakatte, Karnataka
,
Roshni Jaiswal
4  Postgraduate Student, Department of Periodontics, A B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Derelakatte, Karnataka
› Institutsangaben

Abstract

Background and objectives: Studies on effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) use on the periodontium are limited and have, received less attention. The aim of the present split mouth study is to evaluate the periodontal parameters and oral hygiene status of sites associated with smokeless tobacco (ST) placement and compares the corresponding parameters on the contralateral site, where smokeless tobacco is not placed (NST).

Methods: Study population: 25 subjects were selected from A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. Written informed consent was taken from all the participants. Oral cavity of each subject was divided into two sites Smokeless tobacco (ST) site and Non-smokeless tobacco (NST) site.

Screening examination included: Clinical examination of ST keratosis: the location, size, and specific teeth adjacent to the ST keratosis were recorded. Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), Gingival Index. Periodontal parameters-Probing depth (PD), Clinical attachment level, total number of teeth present in the mouth and number of teeth with attrition were recorded.

Results: Of the 25 subjects, mean OHI-S and gingival index was 2.76 and 1.36 respectively. Mean clinical attachment level was 2.78 (p- <0.001), number of teeth with recession and attrition was 3.36 and 3.04 respectively, all in favour of the ST site.

Interpretation and Conclusion: The smokeless tobacco site showed significantly greater gingival recession, attachment loss and periodontal deterioration when compared to nonsmokeless tobacco site.



Publikationsverlauf

Eingereicht: 30. Juli 2016

Angenommen: 05. Februar 2017

Publikationsdatum:
22. April 2020 (online)

© .

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd.
A-12, Second Floor, Sector -2, NOIDA -201301, India

 
  • References

  • 1 Tomar SL, Asma S. Smoking-attributable periodontitis in the United States: findings from NHANES III. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Periodontol 2000;71(5):743-51.
  • 2 Albandar JM, Streckfus CF, Adesanya MR, Winn DM. Cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking as risk factors for periodontal disease and tooth loss. J Periodontol 2000;71(12):1874-81.
  • 3 Krall EA, Garvey AJ, Gracia RI. Alveolar bone loss and tooth loss in male cigar and pipe smokers. J Am Dent Assoc 1999;130(1): 57-64.
  • 4 Natto S, Baljoon M, Bergstrom J. Tobacco smoking and periodontal health in a Saudi Arabian population. J Periodontol 2005; 76(11): 1919-1926.
  • 5 Borges-Yanez SA, Irigoyen-Camacho ME, Maupome G. Risk factors and prevalence of periodontitis in community-dwelling elders in Mexico. J ClinPeriodontol 2006; 33(3): 184-94.
  • 6 Dietrich T, Maserejian NN, Joshipura KJ, Krall EA, Garcia RI. Tobacco use and incidence of tooth loss among US male health professionals. J Dent Res 2007; 86(4): 373-377.
  • 7 Bergstrom J. Tobacco smoking and risk for periodontal disease. J ClinPeriodontol 2003; 30(2): 107-113.
  • 8 Fisher MA, Taylor GW, Tilashalski KR. Smokeless tobacco and severe active periodontal disease, NHANES III. J Dent Res 2005;84(8):705- 710.
  • 9 Greenberg MS, Glick M. Burket's Oral Medicine: Diagnosis and Treatment, Tenth Edition. BCDecker Inc. 2003, Page 90-91.
  • 10 AxellT, Mornstad H, Sundstrom B. The relation of the clinical picture to the histopathology of snuff dipper's lesions in a Swedish population. J Oral Pathol 1976; 5(4): 229-236.
  • 11 Frithiof L, AnnerothG, Lasson U, Sederholm C. The snuff-induced lesion. A clinical and morphological study of a Swedish material. ActaOdontolScand 1983; 41(1): 53-64.
  • 12 Mornstad H, AxellT,Sundstrom B. Clinical picture of snuff dipper's lesion in Swedes. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1989; 17(2): 97- 101.
  • 13 Christen G,McDniel RK, Doran JE. Snuff dipping and tobacco chewing in a group of Texas college athletes. Tex Dent J 1979; 97: 6-10.
  • 14 Monten U, Wennstrom JL, Ramberg P. Periodontal conditions in male adolescents using smokelesstobacco (moist snuff). J ClinPeriodontol 2006; 33(12): 863-868.
  • 15 Poore TK, Johnson GK, Reinhardt RA, Organ CC.The effects of smokeless tobacco on clinical parameters of inflammation and gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 , interleukin-1 alpha, and interleukin - 1 beta. J Periodontol 1995; 66(3): 177-183.
  • 16 Robertson PB, Walsh M, Greene J, Ernster V, Grady D, Hauck W. Periodontal effects associated with the use of smokeless tobacco. JPeriodontol 1990; 61(7): 438-43.
  • 17 Greene JC, Vermillion JR. The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. J Am Dent Assoc 1964; 68:7–13.
  • 18 Löe H. The Gingival Index, the Plaque Index and the Retention Index Systems. J Periodontol. 1967; 38(Suppl 6): 610–616.
  • 19 Barbour SE, Nakashima K, Zhang JB, Tangada S, Hahn CL, Schenkein HA, Tew JG. Tobacco and smoking: environmental factors that modify the host response (immune system) and have an impact on periodontal health. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1997;8(4):437-60.
  • 20 Chu YH, Tatakis DN, Wee AG. Smokeless tobacco use and periodontal health in a rural male population. J periodontol 2010;81(6): 848-854.
  • 21 Christen AG, McDaniel RK, Doran JE. Snuff dipping and tobacco chewing in a group of Texas college athletes. Tex Dent J 1979;97(2):6- 10.
  • 22 Belanger GK, Poulson TC. Smokeless tobacco: a potential health hazard for children. Pediatr Dent 1983; 5(4):266-9.
  • 23 Christen AG. The impact of tobacco use and cessation on oral and dental diseases and conditions. Am J Med 1992; 93(1A): 25S-31S.