CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Health and Allied Sciences NU 2014; 04(04): 060-064
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1703833
Original Article


P. Shivarama Bhat
1  Professor Department of Anatomy, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangalore - 575 018,India
Arunachalam Kumar
2  Professor, Department of Anatomy, K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte University, Mangalore - 575 018, India
› Institutsangaben


The paper details the morphological adaptations of the foot shape and its arches to sustained professional tree climbing activity. Foot inversion, as required by climbers on a long term and regular basis reshapes the bony architecture of the foot and the medial longitudinal arch over a period of time. These changes can be observed and measured, noninvasively through study of footprints.

This community study on the progressive adaptation of the arch to the rigors of climbing was recorded through footprints collected from the climbers with varied experience in the profession. The collation of observations show that the medial arch continues to shrink with sustained inversion, raising the dome of the instep.

The progressive compensatory rise in arch height however, is arrested abruptly after a phase, with failure of the arch to accommodate further to more stress – leading to slipping and falls from heights. The article discusses the bio-mechanisms and kinetics of foot adaptation to the rigors of climbers and analysis the cause of accidental falls, even though most of the accidental fall victims have had a number of years of climbing experience.


26. April 2020 (online)

© .

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd.
A-12, Second Floor, Sector -2, NOIDA -201301, India

  • References

  • 1 Cailliet R; Foot and ankle pain, 1992, Jaypee Brothers, Delhi, 2nd Ed
  • 2 Devis TA; Attempt at mechanical climbing of palms with special reference to coconut palm Journal of Plantation Cops 1997; 5(1):31-35
  • 3 Huang CK Kitaoka HB and Chao EY; Biomechanical evaluation of longitudinal arch stability, Foot Ankle 1993; 14(6):353-357
  • 4 Kaye RA Jahss MH; Tibialis posterior: a review of anatomy and biomechanics in relation to support of the medial longitudinal arch: Foot Ankle 1991;11(4):244-247
  • 5 Nandakumar TB; Hard climb made easy, Indian Coconut Journal, 1985; 17-22
  • 6 Saltzman CL, Nawoczenski DA Talbot KD; Measurement of medial longitudinal arch, Archives of Phy. Med. Rehab, 1995; 76(1):45-49
  • 7 Takai S; Structured components of the arch of the foot analyzed by radiogramatic and multivariate statistical method. Acta anat. 1984; 119(3):161-64
  • 8 George BM, Muddanna SR, Arunachalam Kumar, 2013, Biomechanics of climbing coconut trees and its implications in ankle-foot morphology, Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research, Vol.7, No.5,789-793
  • 9 George BM, Arunachalam Kumar, Muddanna SR, 2013, Foot Deformations in Coconut Tree Climbers of South India; Nitte University Journal of Health Science, Vol.3 (1) 45 - 51
  • 10 George BM, Muddanna SR, Arunachalam Kumar, Niveditha S, JS D'Souza, 2012, Health of coconut tree climbers of rural south India - Medical emergencies, body mass index and occupational marks- a quantitative and survey study; Journal of Diagnostic and Clinical Research Vol. 6 (1) pp57-60
  • 11 Bhat PS & Arunachalam Kumar, The medial longitudinal arch in tree climbing communities, Scientific Medicine 1 (2) 2009
  • 12 Bhat PS, The medial longitudinal arch in tree climbing communities, M.S.(Anatomy) Dissertation, Manipal University, 2001 George BM, Osteoarchitectural adaptations of foot in tree-climbing communities, Ph.D Thesis, Manipal University, 2009