CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Health and Allied Sciences NU 2014; 04(04): 055-059
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1703832
Original Article


Shilpa Shenoy
1  Research Scholar, Nitte University Centre for Science Education & Research, Nitte University, Mangalore 575018, India
Sumathi K.
2  Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics, Manipal Institute of Technology Manipal University, Manipal – 576104, India
A. Veena Shetty
3  Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, K. S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte University, Mangalore 575018, India
› Author Affiliations


Objectives: The present study was carried out to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and phenotypic characteristics in ESBL and non-ESBL producing clinically isolated E.coli.

Material and Methods: A total of 100 non-duplicate consecutive isolates of E.coli were collected from various clinical specimens obtained from K.S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, Mangalore. All the isolates were studied for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern using modified Kirby-Bauer method. ESBL production was screened phenotypically by an initial screening test, which was followed by confirmatory Double disk synergy test. These isolates were screened for virulence factors such as Biofilm assay, hemolysin production and Congo red agar to detect the invasiveness of the isolates.

Results: Out of the 100 E.coli isolates, 45(45%) isolates exhibited ESBL production. Among the ESBL producing isolates 62% were haemolytic, 77% exhibited Congo red uptake, and these two factors were statistically significant as compare non ESBL producing isolates, while 47%, 35% and 18% of the isolates exhibited high, moderate and low biofilm forming ability, respectively. The ESBL producing isolates were multi-drug resistant. There was statistical significance among the ESBL production and expression of virulence factors

Conclusion: The present investigation revealed, a high prevalence of multiple virulence factors among the ESBL in addition to multidrug resistance when compared with non - ESBL isolates. This indicates a dire need for effective ESBL surveillance and control in the hospitals and judicious use of antibiotics among the general public.

Publication History

Publication Date:
27 June 2020 (online)

© .

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd.
A-12, Second Floor, Sector -2, NOIDA -201301, India

  • References

  • 1 Donnenberg MS. Enterobacteriaceae. In: Mandell GL, Bennet JE, Dolin R. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th edition. Churchill Livingstone. 2005:2567-86.
  • 2 Raksha R, Srinivasa H, Mecaden RS. Occurrence and characterization of uropathogenic E.coli in urinary tract infections. Indian J Med Microbiol 2003; 21:102-7.
  • 3 Arturo Casadevall and Liise-anne Pirofski. Host-Pathogen Interactions: The Attributes of Virulence. J. Infect. Dis 2001;184:337–44
  • 4 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Twenty Second Informational Supplement M100-S22. Wayne, PA, USA: CLSI; 2012
  • 5 S.Sharma, G.K Bhat, S Shenoy.Virulence factors and Drug resistance in Escherischia coli isolate from Extra intestinal infections. Indian J Med Microbiol, 2007, 25(4):369-79.
  • 6 Grozdanov L, Raasch C, Schulze J, Sonnenborn U, Gottschalk G,Hacker J & Dobrindt U (2004) Analysis of the genome structure of the nonpathogenic probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917. J Bacteriol 186: 5432–5441.
  • 7 Rodriguez-Bano J, Marti S, Soto S, Fernandez-Cuenca F, Cisneros JM, Pachon J, Pascual A., Martinez-Martinez L.,McQueary C., Actis L.A., Vila J. Biofilm formation in Acinetobacter baumannii: associated features and clinical implications. Clin Microbiol Infect 2008 14: 276–8.
  • 8 Mittal S, Sharma M, Chaudhary U. Study of virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2014;57:61-4.
  • 9 Bradford PA. Extended spectrum ß-lactamases in 21st century: Characterization, epidemiology and detection of this important resistance threat. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001;:933-51.
  • 10 Anathakrishan AN, Kanungo R, Kumar A, Badrinath S. Detection of extended spectrum ß-lactamase producers among surgical wound infections and burn patients in JIPMER. Indian J Med Microbiol 2000;18:160-5.
  • 11 Shetty AV, Kumar SH, Shekar M, Shetty AK, Karunasagar I, Karunasagar I. Prevalence of adhesive genes among uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infection in Mangalore. Indian J Med Microbiol 2014;32:175-8.
  • 12 Berkhoff HA, Vinal AC. Congo red medium to distinguish between invasive and non-invasive Escherichia coli pathogenic for poultry. Avian Dis 1985;30:117-21.
  • 13 Silveira WD, Benetti F, Lancellotti M, Ferreira A, Solferini VN, Brocchi M. Biological and genetic characteristics of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2001;43:303-10.
  • 14 Otto K. and Hermansson M. (2004) Inactivation of ompX causes increased interactions of type 1 Fimbriated Escherichia coli with abiotic surfaces. J Bacteriol 2004,186, 226–234.
  • 15 Marshall KC, Stout, R, and Mitchell R, Mechanism of the initial events in the sorption of marine bacteria to surfaces. J Gen Microbiol 1971 68, 337–348.
  • 16 Olsen A, Jonsson A. and Normark S. Fibronectin binding mediated by a novel class of surface organelles on Escherichia coli. Nature 1989, 338, 652–655.
  • 17 Uhlich GA, Keen JE. and Elder R.O.Mutations in the csgD promoter associated with variations in curli expression in certain strains of Escherichia coli O157: H7. Appl Environ Microbio 2001, 67, 2367–2370.
  • 18 Uhlich GA, Keen JE and Elder RO. Variations in the csgD promoter of Escherichia coli O157: H7 associated with increased virulence in mice and increased invasion of HEp-2 cells. Infection and Immunity 2002, 70, 395–399.
  • 19 Gophna U, Oelschlaeger TA, Hacker J. and Ron EZ. Role of Fibronectin in curli-mediated internalization. FEMS Microbiology Letters 2002, 212, 55–58.
  • 20 Arnqvist, A, Olsen A, Pfeifer J, Russell DG and Normark S. The Crl protein activates cryptic genes for curli formation and fibronectin binding in Escherichia coli HB101. Molecular Microbiology 1992, 6, 2443–2452.
  • 21 Olsen A, Arnqvist A, Hammar M. and Normark S. Environmental regulation of curli production in Escherichia coli Infectious Agents Diseases 1993, 2, 272–274.
  • 22 Sjobring U, Pohl G. and Olsen A. Plasminogen, absorbed by Escherichia coli expressing curli or by Salmonella enteritidis expressing thin aggregative fimbriae, can be activated by simultaneously captured tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). Molecular Microbiology 1994, 14, 443–452.
  • 23 Vidal O, Longin R, Prigent-Combaret C, Dorel C, Hooreman M. and Lejeune P. Isolation of an Escherichia coli K-12 mutant strain able to form biofilms on inert surfaces: involvement of a new ompR allele that increases curli expression. J Bacteriol 1998, 180, 2442–2449.
  • 24 Prigent-Combaret C, Prensier G, Le Thi T.T, Vidal O, LejeuneP. and Dorel C. Developmental pathway for biofilm formation in curli-producing Escherichia coli strains, role of flagella, curli and colanic acid. Environmental Microbiology 2000, 2, 450–464.
  • 25 Rodney M. Donlan Biofilms and Device-Associated Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2001. 7, No. 2, March–April,277
  • 26 Hacker, J., and C. Hughes. Genetic analysis of bacterial hemolysin production. Bull. Inst. Pasteur 1985, 83:149-165
  • 27 Stanley P, Koronakis V, Hughes C. Acylation of Escherichia coli hemolysin: A unique protein lipidation mechanism underlying toxin function. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1998;62:309-33