SALIVARY ELECTROLYTE AS A BIOMARKER IN CARIES ACTIVE TYPE II DIABETES - A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Background: Diabetes Mellitus and dental caries association has been determined successfully but the electrolyte imbalance responsible is still under investigation.
Aims: This study aims to evaluate the salivary electrolyte concentration in non-diabetic and diabetic patients with active dental caries.
Methods and Material: 60 diabetic individuals with active dental caries were selected fulfilling the inclusion criteria as the study group with equal number as controls. 5ml of saliva was collected from the patient, centrifuged and the supernatant obtained was subjected to subsequent analysis for Na+, K+ and Cl- ions concentration in saliva.
Statistical analysis: The intergroup comparison correlating the salivary electrolyte concentration was done using student't' test. A 'p' value of 0.05 or less was considered significant. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation (X ± SD).
Results: The mean value of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in diabetic patients was 0.97+ 0.14, 10.40±0.9 and 135.4±3.67 respectively (p<0.05). However, in non-diabetics it was 0.23±0.07, 6.87±1.86 and 96.24±4.85 respectively (p<0.05).
Conclusions: From our study it is evident that salivary levels of electrolytes show a positive relationship between diabetics and nondiabetics with active dental caries. However, a longitudinal data might help in better understanding of this association.
26 April 2020 (online)
Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd.
A-12, Second Floor, Sector -2, NOIDA -201301, India
- 1 Nagalaxmi V, Priyanka V. Can saliva be a marker for predicting Type I Diabetes Mellitus? - A Pilot Study. JIAOMR 2011;23(4):579-82.
- 2 Lawrence JM, Contreras R, Chen W, Sacks DA. "Trends in the prevalence of pre-existing diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus among a racially/ethnically diverse population of pregnant women, 1999–2005". Diabetes Care 2008; 31 (5): 899–904.
- 3 King H, Aubert RE, Herman WH. Global burden of diabetes,1995-2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes Care 1998; 21:1414-31.
- 4 Bjork S, Kapur A, King H, et al. Global policy: aspects of diabetes in India. Health Policy 2003;66:61-72
- 5 Jawed M, Khan RN, Shahid SM and Azhar A. Protective Effects of Salivary Factors in Dental Caries in Diabetic Patients of Pakistan. Experimental Diabetes Research. 2012;1-5.
- 6 A. T. Vernillo, Dental considerations for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Journal of the American Dental Association. 2003;134:24S–33S.
- 7 Bastos AS, Leite AR, Spin-Neto R, Nassar PO, Massucato EM, Orrico SR. Diabetes mellitus and oral mucosa alterations: prevalence and risk factors. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011; 92:100-5.
- 8 Moore PA, Zgibor JC, Dasanayake AP. Diabetes: a growing epidemic of all ages. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003; 134:11S–15S
- 9 Hicks J, Garcia-Godoy F, Flaitz CJ. Clin Pediatr Dent. Biological factors in dental caries enamel structure and the caries process in the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization (part 2). Winter. 2004;28(2):119-24
- 10 Hegde Mithra N, Hegde Nidarsh D,Ashok Aparna, Shetty Shilpa. Salivary nitric oxide as biomarker of dental caries in adult: an invivo study, IRJP, 2012; 3(11):100-112
- 11 Ahmadi Motamayel F, Davoodi P, Dalband M, Hendi S.S. Saliva as a Mirror of the Body Health.DJH 2010; 1(2):1-15.
- 12 Kaufman E, Lamster I. The diagnostic applications of saliva: a review. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2002; 13:197-212
- 13 Kargul B, Yarat A Tanboga L. Study of some salivary elements with respect to sex, age and caries in children. The Saudi Dental Journal. 1998;10(3):100-106.
- 14 World Health Organization, oral health survey 1987: Basic methods, 3rd Ed, Geneva.
- 15 Castagnola M, PiCCiotti PM, Messana I, Fanali C, Fiorita A, Cabras T et al., Potential applications of human saliva as diagnostic fluid. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2011; 31(6): 347–357.
- 16 Dawes C, Ong. Circardian rhythms in the flow rate and proportional contribution of parotid to whole saliva and its composition in the humans. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol 261, (1);2004;137-142,
- 17 Micheal W.J. Dodds, Dorthea A Johnson, Connie C Mobley, Katheryn M Hattaway. Parotid saliva protein profiles in caries-free and cariesactive adults. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology & Endodontology Vol 83, Issue 2, Feb 1997,244-251.
- 18 Dreizen S, Levy BM. Comparative concentrations of selected trace metals in human and marmoset saliva. Arch Biol 1970;15:179-88.
- 19 A.Bardow, F.Lagerlof, B.Nauntofte, J.Tenovuo. The role of Saliva. In: Ole Fejerkkov, Edwina Kidd, Editors. Dental Caries- The disease and its clinical nd management, 2nd edition: Blackwell Munksgaard; 2008; 190-206.
- 20 Marin NP, Rodriguez JPL, Solis CEM, Loyola APP, Macias JFR, Rosado JCO et al., Caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss in patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. Acta Odontol Latinoam. 21(2);2008:127-133.
- 21 Chatterjee R, Yeh H, Edelman D, and Brancati F. Potassium and risk of Type 2 diabetes. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 6(5): 665–672.
- 22 Miriam F. Delaney, Ariel Zisman, William M. Kettyle. Diabetic Ketoacidosis & Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome. Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America. Vol29, Issue 4, Dec 2000; 683-705
- 23 John E. Hall.Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology 12th edition, 2010,57-70.
- 24 Micheal W.J. Dodds, Dorthea A Johnson, Connie C Mobley, Kathryn M Hattaway. Parotid saliva protein profiles in caries-free and caries-active adults. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1997; 83:244-51.
- 25 Afridi HI, Kazi TG, Kazi N, Jamali MK, Arain MB, Jalbani N etal. Potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium levels in biological samples of hypertensive and nonhypertensive diabetes mellitus patients. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008;124(3):206-24.