In-vitro Evaluation of the Anti-pathogenic Activity of Okoubaka aubrevillei Mother Tincture/3x in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract Using the SHIME Technology Platform
05 February 2020 (online)
Background/Aim: Okoubaka aubrevillei (Okou.) is known in homeopathy for its action on the gastrointestinal tract, e.g. in gastroenteritis and traveler’s diarrhea. Within a Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME)® the modulating effect of Okou. on the activity of physiological human proximal colon microbiota and its preventive effect against gastrointestinal infections was evaluated.
Methods: Upon inoculation with fecal microbiota from a healthy donor, 4 parallel proximal colon compartments of the SHIME® were treated either with Okou. mother tincture or 3x in therapeutic doses, blank and ethanol control for one week. Using the “Okoubaka-adapted” microbial community from SHIME®, 48 hours “challenge tests” were performed with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Salmonella enteritidis in 4 different doses between 103–108 CFU for ETEC and 103–106 for Salmonella, considering the minimum infectious doses. Concentrations of the pathogens and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production were measured at 0, 24 and 48 h. The experiments were done in triplicate and normalized to ethanol control.
Results: Both Okou. mother tincture and 3x were capable of restricting the colonization of Salmonella enteritidis and ETEC at 3 of the 4 pathogen doses. A stronger antipathogenic effect was observed for the mother tincture, which included a reduction of 1.1 log-units of Salmonella (p < 0.001) and 2.0 units of ETEC (p < 0.001) after 24 h of incubation for the lowest pathogen dose.
Total SCFA levels remained unaffected, but propionate and butyrate slightly increased during the first 24 h and remained high during the 24–48 h time interval, accompanied by a decreased acetate production which indicates a “cross feeding” process from acetate to health-related butyrate.
Conclusion: An activating effect of the intestinal microbiome's resistance can be postulated for both Okou. mother tincture and 3x.
Keywords: Okoubaka, microbiome, SHIME®, in vitro