Thromb Haemost 2020; 120(02): 314-321
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400300
Stroke, Systemic or Venous Thromboembolism
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Efficacy and Safety of Nonvitamin K Oral Anticoagulants in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Cancer: A Study-Level Meta-Analysis

Ilaria Cavallari
1  Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, Rome, Italy
,
Giuseppe Verolino
1  Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, Rome, Italy
,
Silvio Romano
2  Department of Life, Health & Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy
,
Giuseppe Patti
3  Department of Translational Medicine, University of Eastern Piedmont, Maggiore della Carità Hospital, Novara, Italy
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

15 July 2019

21 September 2019

Publication Date:
30 November 2019 (online)

Abstract

Objectives In this study-level meta-analysis, we evaluated the clinical outcome with nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) versus vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with cancer.

Background Anticoagulation in AF patients with cancer is challenging given the coexistence of elevated thrombotic and bleeding risk. The efficacy and safety of NOACs in this setting remain unclear.

Methods We included three randomized trials in our primary analysis (N = 2,661 patients) and three observational studies in our secondary, confirmatory analysis (N = 21,112 patients). Outcome measures were: the composite of any stroke or systemic embolism, ischemic stroke, venous thromboembolism, major bleeding, intracranial bleeding; and all-cause death. Mean follow-up duration was 2.2 years.

Results In the primary analysis, the use of NOACs was associated with similar incidence of stroke/systemic embolism (odds ratio [OR] 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.45–1.09; p = 0.11), ischemic stroke (OR 0.71, 0.31–1.64; p = 0.42), venous thromboembolism (OR 0.91, 0.33–2.53; p = 0.86), all-cause death (OR 1.02, 0.72–1.42; p = 0.93), and major bleeding (OR 0.81, 0.61–1.06; p = 0.13) compared with VKAs. The occurrence of intracranial bleeding was significantly lower in the NOACs versus VKAs group (OR 0.11, 0.02–0.63; p = 0.01). These results were overall confirmed in the secondary analysis, where there was additionally a significant reduction of stroke/systemic embolism, ischemic stroke, and venous thromboembolism with NOACs.

Conclusion In AF patients with malignancy, NOACs appear at least as effective as VKAs in preventing thrombotic events and reduce intracranial bleeding. NOACs may represent a valid and more practical alternative to VKAs in this setting of high-risk patients.

Supplementary Material