Interaction between Solvatochromic Dyes and Water Sampled from a Natural Source Treated with High Dilutions of Phosphorus
31 July 2019
01 October 2019
12 February 2020 (online)
Background Highly diluted and succussed solutions interact with solvatochromic dyes, indicating that changes in solvent and solute polarity could be related to their mechanism of action. It is not known, however, how the activity associated with succussed high dilutions is transferred to untreated water and what the limits of this process are.
Aims The aims of the present study were to ascertain whether a succussed high dilution of phosphorus (1.5 × 1−59 M; Phos 30cH) seeded into a natural water source that fed a fjord and two connected lakes could propagate itself through the lake system (total volume 2200 m3) and, moreover, whether the process could be tracked using solvatochromic dyes.
Methods Samples of water were collected before and after seeding, at different times and places throughout the lake system. Controls comprised water taken from an untreated and adjacent, but independent, lake (1385 m3).
Results Water samples taken up to 72 hours after the source treatment produced significant increases (p ≤ 0.03) in the absorbance of the solvatochromic dye methylene violet (MV), while samples from the control lake produced no changes.
Conclusions The study indicates that activity associated with Phos 30c can propagate itself through large volumes of water, causing changes throughout a whole connected lake system, and that these changes can be tracked using the solvatochromic dye MV. This in turn means the use of homeopathic medicines in large volumes of drinking water, in farming and ecological contexts, now has the potential to be assessed with physico-chemical monitoring.
• Succussed highly diluted substances interact with solvatochromic dyes to produce changes in the dyes' visible spectra.
• The interaction between succussed high dilutions and solvatochromic dyes can be used to track changes in large water volumes.
• Specifically, solvatochromic dyes have been used to track the spread of the homeopathic medicine Phos 30cH throughout a large connected lake system.
• Solvatochromic dyes have the potential to be used to monitor the propagation of homeopathic medicines through drinking water in farming and ecological contexts.
- 1 Pollack GH. The Fourth Phase of Water – Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor. 1a ed. Seattle: Ebner & Sons Publishers; 2013
- 2 Roy R, Tiller WA, Bell I, Hoover MR. The structure of liquid water; novel insights from materials research; potential relevance to homeopathy. Mater Res Innov 2005; 9: 1433
- 3 Ling GN. A new theoretical foundation for the polarized-oriented multilayer theory of cell water and for inanimate systems demonstrating long-range dynamic structuring of water molecules. Physiol Chem Phys Med NMR 2003; 35: 91-130
- 4 Del Guidice E. Is the “memory of water” a physical impossibility?. In: Endler PC, Schulte J. , eds. Ultra High Dilution–Physiology and Physics. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1994: 117-120
- 5 Del Giudice E, De Ninno A, Fleischmann M. , et al. Coherent quantum electrodynamics in living matter. Electromagn Biol Med 2009; 24: 199-210
- 6 Del Giudice E, Spinetti PR, Tedeschi A. Water dynamics at the root of metamorphosis in living organisms. Water 2010; 2: 566-586
- 7 Del Giudice E, De Filippis A, Del Giudice N. , et al. Evaluation of a method based on coherence in aqueous systems and resonance-based isotherapeutic remedy in the treatment of chronic psoriasis vulgaris. Curr Top Med Chem 2015; 15: 542-548
- 8 Yinnon TA. Very dilute aqueous solutions–structural and electromagnetic phenomena. Water 2017; 9: 28-66
- 9 Messori C. Deep into the water: exploring the hydro-electromagnetic and quantum-electrodynamic properties of interfacial water in living systems. Open Access Lib J 2019; 6: e5435
- 10 Manzalini A, Galeazzi B. Explaining homeopathy with quantum electrodynamics. Homeopathy 2019; 108: 169-176
- 11 Tournier AL. Is homeopathy really that implausible?. In: Bonamin LV, Waisse S. , eds. Transdisciplinarity and Translationality in High Dilution Research. Signals and Images GIRI Series. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing; 2019: 46-67
- 12 Guedes JRP, Bonamin LV, Capelozzi VL. Water-related mechanisms proposed for storing and transmitting homeopathic information: putative links with biological responses. Homeopathy 2018; 107: 172-180
- 13 Klein SD, Würtenberger S, Wolf U, Baumgartner S, Tournier A. Physicochemical investigations of homeopathic preparations: a systematic review and bibliometric analysis–part 1. J Altern Complement Med 2018; 24: 409-421
- 14 Sukul NC, Sukul A. Exploration of the physical basis of high dilutions by Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy and calorimetry. In: Bonamin LV, Waisse S. , eds. Transdisciplinarity and Translationality in High Dilution Research. Signals and Images GIRI Series. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing; 2019: 82-94
- 15 Cartwright SJ. Solvatochromic dyes detect the presence of homeopathic potencies. Homeopathy 2016; 105: 55-65
- 16 Cartwright SJ. Interaction of homeopathic potencies with the water soluble solvatochromic dye bis-dimethylaminofuchsone. Part 1: pH studies. Homeopathy 2017; 106: 37-46
- 17 Cartwright SJ. Degree of response to homeopathic potencies correlates with dipole moment size in molecular detectors: implications for understanding the fundamental nature of serially diluted and succussed solutions. Homeopathy 2018; 107: 19-31
- 18 Cartwright SJ. Using the unique spectroscopic properties of push-pull molecular systems to investigate homeopathic potencies. In: Bonamin LV, Waisse S. , eds. Transdisciplinarity and Translationality in High Dilution Research. Signals and Images GIRI Series. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing; 2019: 104-127
- 19 Pedro RRP, Schultz C, Pinto SAG. , et al. Searching for the mechanisms involved in Antimonium crudum action on macrophage-Leishmania interaction in vitro . Int J High Dilution Res 2018; 17: 2-4
- 20 Bonamin LV, Pedro RRP, Mota HMG. , et al. Characterization of Antimonium crudum activity using solvatochromic dyes. Homeopathy 2020; 109: 79-86
- 21 Rodrigues de Santana F, de Paula Coelho C, Cardoso TN. , et al. Modulation of inflammation response to murine cutaneous Leishmaniasis by homeopathic medicines: Antimonium crudum 30cH. Homeopathy 2014; 103: 264-274
- 22 de Santana FR, Dalboni LC, Nascimento KF. , et al. High dilutions of antimony modulate cytokines production and macrophage–Leishmania (L.) amazonensis interaction in vitro. Cytokine 2017; 92: 33-47
- 23 Aparicio ACC, Silva JS, Oliveira LHS. , et al. Physical-chemical analysis of different homeopathic medicines using solvatochromic dyes as indicators of solvent dipole moment changes. In: Proceedings of the 4th HRI International Conference; London; June 13–16, 2019: Abstract P008
- 24 Bonamin LV. Homeopathy and Environmental Challenges. In: Proceedings of the 4th HRI International Conference; London; June 13–16, 2019: Abstract A002
- 25 Orjales I, López-Alonso M, Rodríguez-Bermúdez R, Rey-Crespo F, Villar A, Miranda M. Use of homeopathy in organic dairy farming in Spain. Homeopathy 2016; 105: 102-108
- 26 Souza MFA. Homeopatia Veterinária. In: I Conferência Virtual Global sobre Produção de Bovinos de Corte, EMBRAPA; September 2nd – October 15th, 2002. Campo Grande. Available at: https://www.cpap.embrapa.br/agencia/congressovirtual/pdf/portugues/02pt02.pdf . Accessed July 30, 2019
- 27 de Souza MF, Costa-e-Silva EV, Macedo GG, Soares BD, Zúccari CESN. The effect of individualized homeopathic treatment on the semen quality of bulls with reproductive disorders: a case series. Homeopathy 2012; 101: 243-245
- 28 Sato C, Listar VG, Bonamin LV. Development of broiler chickens after treatment with thymulin 5cH: a zoo technical approach. Homeopathy 2012; 101: 68-73
- 29 Braccini GL, Natali MRM, Ribeiro RP. , et al. Morpho-functional response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to a homeopathic complex. Homeopathy 2013; 102: 233-241
- 30 Andretto AP, Fuzinatto MM, Bonafe EG. , et al. Effect of an homeopathic complex on fatty acids in muscle and performance of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Homeopathy 2014; 103: 178-185
- 31 Coelho CP, Vuaden ER, Soto FRM. , et al. Pilot study: evaluation of homeopathic treatment of Escherichia coli infected swine with identification of virulence factors involved. Int J High Dilution Res 2014; 13: 197-206
- 32 Canello S, Gasparini G, Luisetto P, Di Cerbo A, Pomerri F. Bone computed tomography mineral content evaluation in chickens: effects of substances in homeopathic concentration. Homeopathy 2016; 105: 92-95
- 33 Milani G, Cucco MA, Souza MFA. , et al. Uso do Complexo Homeopático EnteroSigo® no tratamento de diarreia em bovinos. In: Anais do 8° Congresso AMVHB; London; November 23–26, 2017: 9
- 34 Mazón-Suástegui JM, Salas-Leiva J, Teles A, Tovar-Ramírez D. Immune and antioxidant enzyme response of longfin yellowtail (Seriola rivoliana) juveniles to ultra-diluted substances derived from phosphorus, silica and pathogenic vibrio . Homeopathy 2019; 108: 43-53
- 35 Brasil, 2003. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento - MAPA. Lei N° 10.831. December 23, 2003. Available at: http://www.agricultura.gov.br/assuntos/sustentabilidade/organicos/arquivos-organicos/legislacao/portugues/lei-no-10-831-de-23-de-dezembro-de-2003.pdf/view
- 36 Brasil, 2011. MAPA. Instrução Normativa N° 46. (Produção vegetal e animal - Regulada pela IN 17–2014). October 06, 2011. Available at: http://www.agricultura.gov.br/assuntos/sustentabilidade/organicos/legislacao/portugues/instrucao-normativa-no-46-de-06-de-outubro-de-2011-producao-vegetal-e-animal-regulada-pela-in-17-2014.pdf/view
- 37 Brasil, 2012. Fundação Florestal. Unidades de Conservação e Importância para a Conservação da Biodiversidade. 2012 . Available at: http://arquivos.ambiente.sp.gov.br/fundacaoflorestal/2012/01/PM_%20APA_Itup_final.pdf
- 38 Brasil, 2011 b. ANVISA. Farmacopéia Homeopática Brasileira, 3a. ed. Available at: http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/33832/259147/3a_edicao.pdf/cb9d5888-6b7c-447b-be3c-af51aaae7ea8
- 39 Brasil, 2014. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento - MAPA. Instrução normativa No 41. December 4, 2014. Anexo IV. Tabela de potências mínimas para manipulação de produtos veterinários homeopáticos. Available at: http://www.in.gov.br/materia/-/asset_publisher/Kujrw0TZC2Mb/content/id/30167678/do1-2014-12-05-instrucao-normativa-n-41-de-4-de-dezembro-de-2014-30167670
- 40 Pinto SAG, Alvares-Saraiva A, Hurtado ECP, Bonamin LV. Study of the effects of Silicea terra and Zincum metallicum in various dilutions on the oxidative activity of macrophages in vitro . In: Proceedings of the XXXI GIRI Meeting; September 7–8, 2017; Krakow. Int J High Dilution Res 2018 ;17: 19
- 41 Nagai MY, Dalboni LC, Cardoso TN. , et al. Effects of homeopathic phosphorus on Encephalitozoon cuniculi-infected macrophages in-vitro. Homeopathy 2019; 108: 188-200