Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2020; 33(02): 110-115
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400232
Original Research
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Comparison of Insall–Salvati Index and Its Modification in Normal Dogs from Four Different Body Weight Groups

1  Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Near East University, Nicosia, Cyprus
Deniz Seyrek-Intas
2  Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Near East University, Nicosia, Cyprus
Soner Cagatay
2  Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Near East University, Nicosia, Cyprus
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.
Further Information

Publication History

24 December 2019

01 October 2019

Publication Date:
22 November 2019 (online)


Objective The objectives of this study were to record the values of Insall-Salvati (IS) index and its modification in dogs classified into four different body weight groups and to determine whether these index values were influenced by sex.

Study Design Bilateral mediolateral radiographs of 86 dogs were obtained. The dogs were classified into four different body weight groups: small, medium, large and giant. The patellar length (PL), caudal and cranial patellar ligament lengths (LLca and LLcr), stifle angle and superimposition of the femoral condyles were measured on the radiographs. The IS index and its modification (LLcr:PL) were calculated by dividing LLca or LLcr by the PL respectively. Spearman's correlation test and analysis of variance were used for statistical analyses.

Results The sex of the dog and the presence of enthesophytes at the apex of the patella were two influential factors for the IS and LLcr:PL values. The mean IS values were 1.60 ± 0.28 in small dogs, 1.73 ± 0.27 in medium dogs, 1.82 ± 0.21 in large dogs and 1.97 ± 0.13 in giant dogs. The mean LLcr:PL for the same groups were 2.05 ± 0.23, 2.13 ± 0.19, 2.23 ± 0.21 and 2.27 ± 0.16 respectively.

Conclusion The reference intervals for the IS index were 1.04 to 2.16 in the small dogs, 1.19 to 2.27 in the medium dogs, 1.40 to 2.24 in the large dogs and 1.71 to 2.23 in the giant dogs. The reference intervals for the LLcr:PL index were 1.59 to 2.51 in the small dogs, 1.75 to 2.51 in the medium dogs, 1.81 to 2.65 in the large dogs and 1.95 to 2.59 in the giant dogs. Dogs with values exceeding these reference intervals have patella alta and those with values below these intervals have patella baja.

Authors’ Contributions

Mehmet K. Ocal contributed to study design, literature search, writing the manuscript, data analysis and interpretation. Deniz Seyrek-Intas contributed to study design, data analysis, data collection and interpretation. Soner Cagatay contributed to data collection and interpretation. All authors approved the submitted manuscript.