Semin Thromb Hemost 2020; 46(02): 199-214
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1701018
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Traumatic-Induced Coagulopathy as a Systems Failure: A New Window into Hemostasis

Geoffrey P. Dobson
1  Heart, Trauma and Sepsis Research Laboratory, College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
,
Jodie L. Morris
1  Heart, Trauma and Sepsis Research Laboratory, College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
,
Lisa M. Davenport
1  Heart, Trauma and Sepsis Research Laboratory, College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
,
Hayley L. Letson
1  Heart, Trauma and Sepsis Research Laboratory, College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
› Author Affiliations
Funding This work was supported by U.S. Special Operations Command, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee protocols A2118 and A2296, and USAMRMC proposal SO150053 (Award No. W81XWH-USSOCOM-BAA-15-1).
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
18 February 2020 (online)

Abstract

Traumatic-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is often associated with significant bleeding, transfusion requirements, inflammation, morbidity, and mortality. This review considers TIC as a systems failure, not as a single-event manifestation of trauma. After briefly reviewing the meaning of TIC and the bewildering array of fibrinolysis phenotypes, we will discuss the role of platelets and fibrinogen in coagulopathy. Next, we will review the different TIC hypotheses and drill down to a single mechanistic domain comprising (1) thrombin's differential binding to thrombomodulin, (2) the expression of annexin II-S100A10 complex, and (3) the functional integrity of the endothelial glycocalyx. This triad forms the basis of the “switch” hypothesis of TIC. We will next address the potential limitations of current practice in treating a coagulation or fibrinolytic defect, and the next defect, and so on down the line, which often leads to what U.S. surgeon William C. Shoemaker considered “an uncoordinated and sometimes contradictory therapeutic outcome.” The treat-as-you-go approach using sequential, single-target treatments appears to be a by-product of decades of highly reductionist thinking and research. Lastly, we will present a unified systems hypothesis of TIC involving three pillars of physiology: the central nervous system (CNS)–cardiovascular system, the endothelial glycocalyx, and mitochondrial integrity. If CNS control of ventriculoarterial coupling is maintained close to unity following trauma, we hypothesize that the endothelium will be protected, mitochondrial energetics will be maintained, and TIC (and inflammation) will be minimized. The Systems Hypothesis of Trauma (SHOT) also helps to answer why certain groups of severely bleeding trauma patients are still dying despite receiving the best care. Currently, no drug therapy exists that targets the whole system.

Author Contribution

All authors contributed equally to the design, implementation, literature analysis, and writing of the manuscript.


Declaration of Interest

The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the U.S. Department of the Navy, U.S. Department of the Army, U.S. Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.