Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2020; 33(03): 174-182
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1700989
Original Research
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Modelling the Effects of Cranial Cruciate Ligament Transection, Medial Meniscal Release and Triple Tibial Osteotomy on Stability of the Canine Stifle Joint

Tanja V. Jensen*
1  Imaging Department, AniCura Djursjukhus Hässleholm, Hässleholm, Sweden
Signe S. Kristiansen*
2  Novo Nordisk, DAPI QA, Kalundborg, Copenhagen, Denmark
Lene E. Buelund
3  Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
James E. Miles
3  Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
› Author Affiliations
Funding This study was funded by the funds received from the institute.
Further Information

Publication History

09 April 2019

27 November 2019

Publication Date:
30 January 2020 (online)


Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the ex vivo effects of sequential cranial cruciate ligament transection (CCLx), medial meniscal release (MMR) and triple tibial osteotomy (TTO) on canine stifle stability compared with the intact state, across a wide range of joint angles.

Study Design Nine right hind limb preparations were instrumented to provide constant quadriceps and gastrocnemius loads in a 3:1 ratio, and extended from full flexion during fluoroscopic recording. Recordings were repeated after each of CCLx, MMR and TTO. Fluoroscopic landmarks were used to calculate tibial subluxation and patellar ligament angle.

Results Medial meniscal release resulted in additional cranial tibial subluxation compared with CCLx. Triple tibial osteotomy restored stifle stability up to a joint angle of 125 degrees. The presence of the crossover angle could be inferred from the patellar ligament angle and subluxation curves.

Conclusion Our results suggest that in the cranial cruciate ligament-deficient stifle, the crossover angle at which loading shifts between the caudal and cranial cruciate ligaments is dependent on both loading and integrity of the medial meniscus. Triple tibial osteotomy improves stifle stability over a wide range of joint angles under a quadricep to gastrocnemius loading ratio of 3:1 by converting cranial tibial thrust to caudal tibial thrust, due to TTO increasing the amount of joint extension required to reach the crossover angle.

Authors' Contributions

James E. Miles and Lene E. Buelund contributed to conception of study and study design. All authors contributed to data acquisition. James E. Miles, Tanja V. Jensen and Signe S. Kristiansen performed data analysis and interpretation. All authors contributed to drafting, revision and approval of the final manuscript.

* Joint first authors.

Supplementary Material