CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Eur J Dent 2013; 07(01): 195-201
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1700380
Original Article
Dental Investigation Society

Effect of Mouthrinse Containing Propolis on Oral Microorganisms and Human Gingival Fibroblasts

Fatih Özan
a   School of Dentistry, Cumhuriyet University,
Zeynep Sümer
b   School of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University
Zübeyde Akın Polat
c   School of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University
Kürşat Er
d   School of Dentistry, Karadeniz Technical University
Ülkü Özan
e   School of Dentistry, Cumhuriyet University
Orhan Değer
f   School of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
30 September 2019 (online)


Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four different mouthrinse containing propolis solutions and mouthrinse containing 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) on oral microorganisms and human gingival fibroblasts.

Methods: Four different solutions of propolis were prepared and propylene glycol and alcohol were used as solvents for each propolis sample. Mouthrinse containing propolis was prepared at four different concentrations as 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1%. Besides, CHX was used as control group. The antibacterial effects of five solutions on oral microorganisms were tested and their cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblasts were evaluated by agar diffusion test.

Results: At this concentrations effectiveness of mouthrinse containing propolis samples on oral microorganisms were not found as effective as CHX. On the contrary, samples found less cytotoxic on human gingival fibroblasts than CHX.

Conclusions: Standardized preparations of propolis can be used as a mouthrinse at appropriate concentrations. To obtain a standardized chemical composition, advanced researches are needed. (Eur J Dent 2007;1:195-201)

  • References

  • 1 Kornman KS. The role of supragingival plaque in the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases. A review of current concepts.. J Periodontal Res 1986; 21 (suppl) 522
  • 2 Wu-Yuan CD, Green L, Birch L. Progression and surface ultra structure of in vitro caused erosive lesions in human and bovine enamel.. Caries Res 1991; 25: 81-87
  • 3 Molan P. Why honey is effective as a medicine. Part 2. The scientific explanation of its effects. Bee World 2001; 82: 022-040
  • 4 Neiva Moreno MI, Isla MI, Cudmani NG, Vattuone MA, Sampietro AR. Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucuman, Argentina) propolis. J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 68: 097-102
  • 5 Sforcin JM, Fernandes A, Lopes CA, Bankova V, Funari SR. Seasonal effect on Brazilian propolis antibacterial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2000; 73: 243-249
  • 6 Ghisalberti EL. Propolis: a review. Bee World 1979; 60: 059-084
  • 7 Markham KR, Mitchell KA, Wilkins AL, Daldy JA, Lu Y. HPLC and GC-MS identification of the major organic constituents in New Zealand propolis. Phytochemistry 1996; 42: 205-211
  • 8 Cheng PC, Wong G. Honey bee propolis: prospects in medicine. Bee World 1966; 77: 008-015
  • 9 Marcucci MC. Propolis: chemical composition, biological properties and therapeutic activity. Apidologie 1995; 26: 083-099
  • 10 Wade C, Friedrich JA. Propolis power plus: the healthpromoting properties of the amazing beehive energizer. New Canaan CT: Keats 1996; 0
  • 11 Koo H, Gomes BP, Rosalen PL, Ambrosano GM, Park YK, Cury JA. In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis and Arnica Montana against oral pathogens. Arch Oral Biol 2000; 45: 141-148
  • 12 Madarova L. Antibacterial properties of propolis. Ceskoslovenska Stomatologie 1980; 80: 304-307
  • 13 Scheller S, Mundorff L, Ilewixs L, Lucial M, Skrobidurska D, Matuga W. Biological properties and clinical application of Propolis IX. Investigation of the influence of EEP on dental pulp regeneration. Arzneim Forsch 1978; 28: 289-291
  • 14 Eley BM. Antibacterial agents in the control of supragingival plaque-a review. Br Dent J 1999; 27: 286-296
  • 15 Emilson CG. Susceptibility of various microorganisms to chlorhexidine.. Scand J Dent Res 1977; 85: 255-265
  • 16 Hennessey TD. Antibacterial properties of hibitane. Clin Periodontol 1977; 4: 036-048
  • 17 Newman MG, Hulem C, Colgate J, Anselmo C. Antimicrobial susceptibility of plaque bacteria. J Dent Res 1979; 58: 1722-1732
  • 18 Loesche WJ, Kazor C. Microbiology and treatment of halitosis. Periodontol 2000 2002; 28: 256-279
  • 19 Roldan S, Winkel EG, Herrera D, Sanz M, Van Winelfoff AJ. The effects of a new mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine, cettylpyridinium chloride and zinc lactate on the micro flora of oral halitosis patients: a dual-centre, double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Clin Periodontol 2003; 30: 427-434
  • 20 Sekino S, Ramberg PH, Uzel NG, Socransky S, Lindhe J. Effect of various chlorhexidine regimens on salivary bacteria and de novo plaque formation. J Clin Periodontol 2004; 31: 609-614
  • 21 Davis PH. Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, Bols; 1985: 001-009
  • 22 Grange JM, Davey RW. Antibacterial properties of propolis (bee glue). J Royal Soc Med 1990; 83: 159-160
  • 23 Bonhevi JS, Coll FV, Jrda RE. The composition, active components and bacteriostatic activity of propolis in dietetics. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1994; 71: 529-532
  • 24 Sönmez S, Kirilmaz L, Yucesoy M, Yücel B, Yilmaz B. The effect of bee propolis on oral pathogens and human gingival fibroblasts. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 102: 371-376
  • 25 Koo H, Cury JA, Rosalen PL, Ambrosano GM, Ikegaki M, Park YK. Effect of a mouthrinse containing selected propolis on 3-day dental plaque accumulation and polysaccharide formation. Caries Res 2002; 36: 445-448
  • 26 Park YK, Koo MH, Abreu JAS, Ikegaki M, Cury JA, Rosalen PL. Antimicrobial activity of propolis on oral microorganisms. Current Microbiol 1998; 36: 024-028
  • 27 Kujumgiev A, Bankova V, Ignatove A, Popov S. Antibacterial activity of propolis, some of its components and their analogs. Pharmazie 1993; 48: 785-786
  • 28 de Castro SL, Higashi KO. Effect of different formulations of propolis on mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Ethnopharmacol 1995; 46: 055-058
  • 29 Dobrowolski JW, Vohora SB, Sharma K, Shah SA, Naqvi SA, Dandiya PC. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiamoebic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic studies on propolis bee product. J Ethnopharmacol 1991; 35: 077-082
  • 30 Cook NC, Samma S. Flavonoids: chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects and dietary sourses. Nutr Biochem 1996; 7: 066-076
  • 31 Mirzoeva OK, Grishanin RN, Calder PC. Antimicrobial action of propolis and some of its components: the effects on growth, membrane potential and motility of bacteria. Microbiol Res 1997; 152: 239-246
  • 32 Amaros M, Lurton E, Boustie J, Girre L, Sauvager F, Cormier M. Comparison of the anti-herpes simplex virus activities of propolis and 3-methyl-but-2-enyl caffeate. Nat Prod 1994; 57: 644-647
  • 33 Bonhevi JS, Coll FV, Jrda RE. The composition, active components and bacteriostatic activity of propolis in dietetics. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1994; 71: 529-532
  • 34 Takaisikikuni NB, Schilcher H. Inhibitory effects of apple polyphenols and related compound cariogenic factors of mutans streptococci.. J Agricult Food Chem 2000; 48: 566-571
  • 35 Andres MT, Chung WO, Roberts MC, Fierro JF. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens spp. isolated in Spain. Antimicrob Agents and Chemother 1998; 42: 3022-3023
  • 36 Liu CF, Lin CC, Lin MH, Lin YS, Lin SC. Cytoprotection by propolis ethanol extract of acute absolute ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions. Am J Chin Med 2002; 30: 245-254
  • 37 Socranskys SS, Haffajee AD. Dental biofilms: difficult therapeutic targets. Periodontol 2000 2002; 28: 012-055
  • 38 Murray MC, Worthington HV, Blinkhorn AS. A study to investigate the effect of a propolis-containing mouthrinse on the inhibition of de novo plaque formation. J Clin Periodontol 1997; 24: 796-798
  • 39 Hayacibara MF, Koo H, Rosalen PL, Duarte S, Franco EM, Bowen WH, Ikegaki M, Cury JA. In vitro and in vivo effects of isolated fractions of Brazilian propolis on caries development. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 101: 110-115
  • 40 Ikeno K, Ikeno T, Miyazawa C. Effects of propolis on dental caries in rats. Caries Res 1991; 25: 347-351
  • 41 Burdock GA. Review of the biological properties and toxicity of be propolis. Food Chem Toxicol 1998; 36: 343-367