Homeopathy
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1697000
Original Research Article
The Faculty of Homeopathy

Characterization of Antimonium crudum Activity Using Solvatochromic Dyes

Leoni Villano Bonamin
1  Universidade Paulista, UNIP, Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Renata Rossettini Palombro Pedro
1  Universidade Paulista, UNIP, Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Hannah Maureen G. Mota
1  Universidade Paulista, UNIP, Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Michelle S. Correia Aguiar
1  Universidade Paulista, UNIP, Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Sandra A. G. Pinto
1  Universidade Paulista, UNIP, Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Jefferson de Souza
1  Universidade Paulista, UNIP, Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Larissa Helen Silva de Oliveira
1  Universidade Paulista, UNIP, Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Ana Carla Aparicio
1  Universidade Paulista, UNIP, Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Giovani B. Peres
1  Universidade Paulista, UNIP, Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Ivana Suffredini
1  Universidade Paulista, UNIP, Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Maristela Dutra-Correa
1  Universidade Paulista, UNIP, Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Steven J. Cartwright
2  DiagnOx Laboratory, Cherwell Innovation Centre, Upper Heyford, Oxon, United Kingdom
› Author Affiliations
Funding This study was funded by the CAPES-PROSUP student fellowship (process no.: 15846666).
Further Information

Publication History

28 March 2019

04 July 2019

Publication Date:
11 October 2019 (online)

Abstract

Introduction The mechanism by which highly diluted and agitated solutions have their effect is still unknown, but the development in recent years of new methods identifying changes in water and solute dipole moments is providing insights into potential modes of action.

Objective The objective of the current study was to compare the biological effects of Antimonium crudum (AC) previously obtained by our group and already described in the literature with now measurable physico-chemical effects on solvatochromic dyes.

Methods Different dilutions of AC and succussed water have been characterized with respect to their effect on the visible spectra of the solvatochromic dyes methylene violet (MV), a pyridinium phenolate (ET33), and a dimethylamino naphthalenone (BDN) compared with in-vitro action against Leishmania amazonensis-infected macrophages.

Results Dye responses varied according to the dye used and the level of AC dilution and results were found to corroborate previously published in-vivo and in-vitro effects of AC. In addition, a very significant enhancement in the absorbance increase of MV was seen using the supernatant from AC 200cH-treated cells (15%; p < 0.0001) over that seen with AC 200cH itself (4%; p = 0.034), suggesting the amplification of ultra-high dilution effects by biological systems. Furthermore, supernatants from AC-treated cells increased the range of dilutions of AC that were capable of producing effects on the spectra of MV. The effect of AC dilutions on dye ET33 was eliminated by a weak electric current passed through potency solutions.

Conclusion The data confirm a correspondence between the biological effects of dilutions of AC in-vitro and physico-chemical effects on solvatochromic dyes as measured by changes in their visible spectra. Results also indicate high dilutions of AC are sensitive to exposure to electric currents and biological systems.

Highlights

• The effect of AC dilutions on solvatochromic dye spectra varied according to the level of dilution and was consistent with previous results from in-vivo and in-vitro studies.


• The effect of AC dilutions on the dye ET33 was eliminated by weak electric currents passed through potency solutions.


• Supernatant from infected macrophages previously treated with AC significantly changed the absorbance of solvatochromic dyes after 1:100 dilution and succussion in water.


• No effect was identified in the control samples, whatever the method used.


• The possibility of an electromagnetic marker associated with potencies of AC is discussed.