CC BY 4.0 · Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2019; 41(10): 588-596
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1695738
Original Article
Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Contribution of Ultra-processed Food to the Daily Food Intake of HIV-positive and HIV-Negative Women during Pregnancy

Contribuição dos alimentos ultraprocessados no consumo alimentar diário de mulheres soropositivas e soronegativas para o HIV durante a gestação
1  Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
,
Ester Zoche
2  Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
,
Rafaela da Silveira Corrêa
2  Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
3  Centro Universitário Ritter dos Reis, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
,
Eunice Beatriz Martin Chaves
1  Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
2  Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
,
Helena von Eye Corleta
1  Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
2  Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
,
Vera Lúcia Bosa
1  Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
2  Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

10 September 2018

24 June 2019

Publication Date:
03 September 2019 (online)

  

Abstract

Objective To assess the daily dietary intake and energy contribution of ultra-processed foods among women who are positive and negative for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy.

Methods This case–control study included 77 HIV-positive and 79 HIV-negative puerperal women between 2015 and 2016. The socioeconomic and maternal demographic data were assessed, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) adapted for pregnant women was applied. The Fisher exact test and the Mann-Whitney test were applied to detect differences between the groups. Linear regression was used to assess the associations between the intake of ultra-processed food and energy, macro- and micronutrients, with values of p < 0.05 considered significant.

Results The HIV-positive group was older (p < 0.001) and had lower income (p = 0.016) and level of schooling (p < 0.001) than the HIV-negative group. Both groups presented similar average food intake: 4,082.99 Kcal/day and 4,369.24 Kcal/day for the HIV-positive and HIV-negative women respectively (p = 0.258).The HIV-positive group consumed less protein (p = 0.048), carbohydrates (p = 0.028) and calcium (p = 0.001), and more total fats (p = 0.003). Ultra-processed foods accounted for 39.80% and 40.10% of the HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups' caloric intake respectively (p = 0.893). The intake of these foods was associated with a higher consumption of carbohydrates (p < 0.001), trans fat (p = 0.013) and sodium (p < 0.001), as well as lower protein (p < 0.001) and fiber intake (p = 0.022).

Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the energy consumption and ultra-processed food intake were similar in both groups, which reinforces the trend toward a high intake of ultra-processed food in the general population. The intake of ultra-processed food was positively associated with the consumption of carbohydrates, trans fat and sodium, and negatively associated with the consumption of protein and fiber.

Resumo

Objetivo Avaliar o consumo alimentar diário e a contribuição dos alimentos ultraprocessados na dieta de gestantes soropositivas e soronegativas para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV).

Métodos Estudo de caso–controle com 77 puérperas soropositivas e 79 soronegativas entre 2015 e 2016. Analisaram-se dados socioeconômicos e demográficos maternos, e aplicou-se um questionário de frequência alimentar (QFA) adaptado para gestantes. Utilizou-se o teste exato de Fisher e o teste de Mann-Whitney para detectar diferenças entre os grupos. A regressão linear avaliou a associação entre o consumo de ultraprocessados e de energia, macro e micronutrientes. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos.

Resultados O grupo de puérperas soropositivas foi mais velho (p < 0,001), com menor renda familiar (p = 0,016) e escolaridade (p < 0,001) quando comparado com o grupo das soronegativas. Ambos os grupos apresentaram médias de consumo semelhantes, com 4.082,99 Kcal/dia entre as puérperas soropositivas e 4.369,24 kcal/dia entre as soronegativas (p = 0,258). Observou-se que as puérperas soropositivas consumiam menos proteínas (p= 0,048), carboidratos (p = 0,028) e cálcio (p = 0,001), e mais gorduras totais (p = 0,003). Os ultraprocessados corresponderam a 39,80% das calorias entre as soropositivas, e a 40,10% entre as soronegativas (p = 0,893). O consumo destes alimentos esteve associado a um maior consumo de carboidratos (p < 0,001), gordura trans (p = 0,013) e sódio (p < 0,001), e a um menor consumo de proteínas (p < 0,001) e fibras (p = 0,022).

Conclusão Esses achados demonstram que o consumo de energia e de alimentos ultraprocessados foram semelhantes nos dois grupos, o que reforça a tendência ao consumo elevado de alimentos ultraprocessados na população geral. O consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados foi positivamente associado ao consumo de carboidratos, gorduras trans e sódio, e negativamente associado ao consumo de proteínas e fibras.

Contributors

Agostini CO, Zoche E, Corrêa RS, Chaves EBM, Corleta HvE and Bosa VL contributed to the conception and design of the present study, to the data collection, or to the analysis and interpretation of data, as well as to the writing of the article or to the critical review of the intellectual content and to the final approval of the version to be published.