Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2019; 23(05): 497-510
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1695721
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Normal Variations and Pathologic Disorders of Chondrification and Ossification of the Foot and Related Diseases

1   Department of Diagnostic and Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Munchen Klinik Schwabing, Munich, Germany
Christian Glaser
2   Munich-Pasing Radiological Centre, Munich, Germany
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
25 September 2019 (online)


Formation of the skeletal elements of the foot involves different stages of development. Failure in segmentation of the cartilaginous plate is supposed to be the underlying mechanism leading to tarsal coalition. Variants or disorders in ossification might result in harmless osseous anomalies or symptomatic disease. When the ossification is almost completed, several secondary ossification centers start to ossify. They are usually incidental findings. In symptomatic patients they have to be differentiated from fractures or can be the source of complaints by themselves.