Homeopathy 2020; 109(02): 051-064
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1694999
Review Article
The Faculty of Homeopathy

The Complexity of the Homeopathic Healing Response Part 2: The Role of the Homeopathic Simillimum as a Complex System in Initiating Recovery from Disease

1  Department of Family and Community Medicine, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona, United States
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.
Further Information

Publication History

16 April 2019

27 June 2019

Publication Date:
30 November 2019 (online)


Background Evidence indicates that homeopathic medicines are complex self-organizing nano-scale systems that generate unique low-intensity electromagnetic signals and/or quantum coherence domains. In Part 1, we reviewed relevant concepts from complex adaptive systems science on living systems for the nature of homeopathic healing.

Aim In Part 2, we discuss the complex-system nature of homeopathic medicines. The aim is to relate the evidence on the nature and properties of homeopathic medicines to the complex systems model for homeopathic healing.

Methods and Results The work is a narrative review, with complexity model development for the nature of homeopathic medicines. Studies suggest that homeopathic manufacturing generates nano-structures of source material, silica and silicon quantum dots if succussed in glassware or including botanical source materials; or carbon quantum dots if succussed in plastic or including any organic source materials, as well as solute-induced water nano-structures carrying medicine-specific information. On contact with physiological fluids (e.g., blood plasma), there is evidence that nano-structures additionally adsorb individualized patterns of the recipient's own proteins on to their surfaces to create a unique protein corona coat (shell). Thus, the simillimum may generate a personalized biological identity upon administration. Consequently, a medicine can serve as an individually salient, self-similar information carrier, whose protein corona constituent pattern reflects the individual's current internal state of health/disease. Homeopathic medicine complexity emerges from interactions of the component parts from source, silica from glassware or carbon from plastic containers, solvents (lactose, water, ethanol), adsorbed biomolecule layers from plant or animal sources, and adsorbed biomolecules of the recipient. Low doses of these complex medicines can act as biological signaling agents to initiate hormesis via a network-wide pattern of adaptive responses by the recipient complex adaptive system, rather than as conventional pharmaceutical drugs. Biological mediators of adaptive responses include inter-connected network elements of the cell danger/damage defense system: for example, gene expression, reactive oxygen species, heat shock proteins, cytokines, macrophages, T-cells, and associated brain–immune system mediator pathways.

Conclusions Every homeopathic medicine is a complex nano-scale system involving multiple inter-connected, interacting components, and emergent properties. Simillimum individualization derives from formation of a unique personalized protein corona shell adsorbed to the reactive surface of the homeopathic nano-structures on contact with the recipient's body fluids. Low doses of such complex nano-structures initiate the adaptive processes of hormesis to mobilize endogenous healing of a disease state. The capacity for self-organization and self-similarity in complex systems is the key to future research on the nature of homeopathic medicines and systemic healing during individualized homeopathic treatment.


• Evidence suggests that each homeopathic medicine is a complex multi-component, core-shell and/or doped nano-structured system ranging in sizes from 1 to 100 nm in diameter and exhibiting properties of self-organization, self-similarity, and emergence.

• The nano-scale components of homeopathic medicine's core and shell include source materials, silica and silicon quantum dots (if manufactured in glassware and/or containing plant-source materials), carbon nano-structures including carbon quantum dots (if manufactured in plastic containers and/or containing any organic materials from source, lactose, or ethanol), and water nano-structures.

• The homeopathic simillimum nano-structures emit unique electromagnetic and opto-electronic signals as well as exhibit quantum mechanical properties.

• On contact with a specific patient's plasma or serum, the current model proposes that the homeopathic nano-structures adsorb clinical state-specific patterns of proteins and other biomolecules on to their surfaces, thereby creating a personalized protein corona coat and biological identity reflective of the patient's current biological state (e.g., health versus specific disease or clinical state).

• Homeopathic simillimum as an individualized treatment would derive, at the nano-biointerface from the interaction of the emergent signal, properties of the correctly matched medicine and the individual patient's own unique biological state (protein corona state-specific pattern) at quantitatively low – that is, hormetic – doses. Smaller nanoparticle sizes in higher versus lower potencies may also affect the specific protein corona patterns and thus biological effects.

• Hormetic doses of the individual's encapsulated illness biology on the simillimum's nano-structure surface protein corona coat/layer would serve as adaptive triggers for homeopathic healing from disease.