Traditional Medicine and Diabetes Care in Myanmar
Received: 27 March 2019
Accepted: 06 April 2019
28 June 2019 (online)
According to the National Survey of Diabetes and Its Risk Factors conducted in 2014, Myanmar has a high burden of diabetes, as the prevalence of diabetes in adult population was 10.5% and the estimated number of adults with diabetes was 2.5 million. Diabetes care in the country is still far from satisfaction, as more than 50% of people with diabetes were unaware of their diagnosis, and access to the comprehensive diabetes care is generally available in the big cities only. Moreover, most people have to pay the cost of health care out of their own pocket, as the health insurance system and social security system are currently in their rudimentary stage. Because of these gaps in diabetes care and health financing system, a significant number of people resort to the traditional medicine, which is familiar to a significant proportion of the public and also being relatively more accessible with affordable cost. This article assesses the current situation of traditional medicine in diabetes care in Myanmar and attempts to make some suggestions to remedy the drawbacks of traditional medicine. It discusses ways to adopt an integrated approach to strengthen the practice of traditional medicine, in general, in the health care system of the country regarding the diabetes care.
- 1 International Diabetes Federation. Global Diabetes Scorecard. http://www.idf.org/global-diabetes-scorecard/ Accessed December 25, 2016
- 2 Saaddine JB, Cadwell B, Gregg EW. et al. Improvements in diabetes processes of care and intermediate outcomes: United States, 1988-2002. Ann Intern Med 2006; 144 (07) 465-474
- 3 International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas. 7th ed.. Brussels: Belgiu International Diabetes Federation; 2015. http://www.diabetesatlas.org Accessed February 18, 2016
- 4 Latt TS, Zaw KK, Aye TT, Ko K. Report on National Survey of Diabetes Mellitus and Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases in Myanmar in 2014, Ministry of Health, Myanmar; 2014. Available at: https://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/steps/Myanmar_2014_STEPS_Report.pdf Accessed 30 May 2019
- 5 Roglic G, Varghese C, Thamarangsi T. Diabetes in South-East Asia: burden, gaps, challenges and ways forward. WHO South-East Asia J Public Health 2016; 5 (01) 1-4
- 6 Argáez-López N, Wacher NH, Kumate-Rodríguez J. et al; DIMSS Study Group. The use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies in type 2 diabetic patients in Mexico. Diabetes Care 2003; 26 (08) 2470-2471
- 7 World Health Organization. WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014–2023. World Health Organization; 2013
- 8 World Health Organization. Beijing Declaration. Beijing, China: WHO Congress on Traditional Medicine; November 8, 2008. Available at: http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/traditional/TRM_BeijingDeclarationEN.pdf Accessed May 30, 2019.
- 9 Ministry of Health. Traditional Medicine in the Union of Myanmar. [Internet]. Searo.who.int. [Cited July 23, 2018]. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/92455/9789241506090_eng.pdf?sequence=1 Accessed May 30, 2019.
- 10 Ministry of Health. Health in Myanmar 2014. Ministry of Health, Nay Pyi Taw; 2014: 138-141 Available at: http://www.searo.who.int/entity/medicines/topics/,_medicine_in_union_of_myanmar.pdf Accessed May 30, 2019.
- 11 WHO Country Office for Myanmar Country Cooperative Strategy Myanmar, 2014–2018. WHO; 2014. Available at: http://www.searo.who.int/myanmar/documents/Healthin-Myanmar_2012_4_healthcaresystem Accessed May 30, 2019.
- 12 Sein TT, Myint P, Tin N, Win H, Aye SS, Sein T. The Republic of the Union of Myanmar health system review (Health Systems in Transition, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2014). I. Asia Pacific Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. II. World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific; 2014
- 13 A Glance at Traditional Medicine in Myanmar | Myanmar Insider [Internet]. Myanmarinsider.com [Cited July 23, 2018]. Available at: https://iris.wpro.who.int/bitstream/handle/10665.1/11354/9789290616665_eng.pdf Accessed May 30, 2019.
- 14 Ministry of Health. Traditional Medicine in Myanmar. Ministry of Health; 2012. Available at: http://www.searo.who.int/entity/medicines/topics/traditional_medicine_in_myanmar_2012.pdf Accessed May 30, 2019.
- 15 Tchacondo T, Karou SD, Agban A. et al. Medicinal plants use in central Togo (Africa) with an emphasis on the timing. Pharmacognosy Res 2012; 4 (02) 92-103
- 16 de-Graft AikinsA. Healer shopping in Africa: new evidence from rural-urban qualitative study of Ghanaian diabetes experiences. BMJ 2005; 331 (7519) 737
- 17 Egede LE, Ye X, Zheng D, Silverstein MD. The prevalence and pattern of complementary and alternative medicine use in individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002; 25 (02) 324-329
- 18 Zin T, Win NN, Oo TH. et al. Study on pattern of traditional health care utilization of the community in urban and rural areas of Taikkyi Township, Yangon Division. Research Congress, DMR; 1992
- 19 Latt TS, Tun S, Oo ES. Treatment seeking behavior of diabetes mellitus patients in Hmaw Bi Township, Yangon Division, Myanmar. The First International Public Health Conference in Myanmar; 2013
- 20 Aye T, Oo E, Aung M. Diabetes mellitus in Myanmar: socio-cultural challenges and strength. J Soc Health Diabetes 2014; 2 (01) 9
- 21 Tin N. A Study of KAP on Myanmar People on Traditional Medicine. 55th Myanmar Medical Conference; 2009: 78-79
- 22 Zin T, Hla T, New N. Study of knowledge, perception and practice of patient utilizing traditional medical care at the traditional medicine centers in Yangon and Mandalay. Paper read at Myanmar Medical Research Congress, Scientific paper reading session. December 1991
- 23 Myint KY. The prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Myanmar. Doctorate Thesis Submitted to Board for Degree of Doctor of Medicine, University of Medicine, October 2, 2000.
- 24 Swe S, Thi KM, Htway EE. et al. Acute toxicity and blood glucose lowering effect of aqueous extract of Bergenia ligulata leaf on laboratory based experimental animals. 41st Myanmar Health Research Congress; 2012: 52
- 25 Aung NT, Chit K, Kyaing KO, Zaw MT, Aye TM. Clinical study of Gynuraprocumbers (Lour.) on type 2 diabetes patients of Myanmar. 41st Myanmar Health Research Congress 2012; 52-53
- 26 Myint MM, Than MA, Lwin KK. et al. Hypoglycemic effect of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (Taung-ze-phyu) on rabbit model. Myanmar Health Research Congress; 2007: 51-52
- 27 Kyaw AK, Thein TT, Phyu KP. et al Pre-clinical safety and hypoglycaemic activity of ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata Nees. Myanmar Health Research Congress; 2008: 37
- 28 Swe S, Nyi KS, Maw HH. et al. Hypoglycemic effect of Plantago major L. and Heliotropium indicum L. on albino rats. Myanmar Health Research Congress; 2009: 17-18
- 29 Aung S, Than MA, Lwin KK, Myint MM. Preliminary study of hypoglycaemic effect of Curcuma longa Linn. (Turmeric) rhizomes on rabbit model. Myanmar Health Research Congress; 2010: 18-19
- 30 Oo ZH, Aung K. Hypoglycemic Effect of Syzygiumcumini (L.) Skeels. (Thabye) Bark by Using Adrenaline Induced Hyperglycemic Albino Rat Model. 19th Myanmar Military Medical Conference; 2012: 16
- 31 Aung EPP, Lwin SH, Aye NN, Phyu KP. Hypoglycemic effect of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Phan-kha-thee) on diabetic albino rat Models. 45th Myanmar Health Research Congress, Yangon; DMR: 2017: 62
- 32 Aung HP, Kyaw M. Antihyperglycemic effect of Piper betle Linn. (Kun-Ywet) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. 21st Myanmar Military Medical Conference; 2014: 13-14
- 33 Zin T, Win NN, Myint W. et al. Clinical trial of antidiabetic traditional medicine formulation (TMF) No. 32. J Myanmar Health Sci Res 1994; 1: 11-17
- 34 Hla T, Win MM, Htay TT, Lwin YY, Thwe Y, Wint MM. Hypoglycemic potential of Momordica charantia Linn. on maturity onset diabetes mellitus patients. Myanmar Health Research Congress, Yangon; DMR (LM): 1996: 63
- 35 Wynn TT, Phyu KP, Oung MT. et al. Blood glucose lowering effect of Traditional Medicine Formular No. 28 (TMF28) on type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Myanmar Health Research Congress; 2009: p21 2009
- 36 Thwin TG, Kyaw MTD, Ohnmar M. et al. Effect of pomegranate juice consumption on oxidative stress and lipoprotein oxidation, aggregation and retention in diabetic patients. Myanmar Health Research Congress; 2010: 41-42
- 37 Than A, Myint T, Myint MM, Myint W, Bwin M. Study of inhibitory effects of some traditional medicine formulations on adrenaline-induced hyperglycemia in animal models. Medical Research Congress; 1991: 31
- 38 Thein TT, Maung M, Phyu KP. et al. Experimental study on acute anti-hyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata Nees. on rats. Myanmar Health Research Congress; 2007: 23
- 39 Htut MTD. A study on hypoglycemic activity of Coccinia indica (ivy gourd) (Kin-Pon Thee) on albino rats. 54th Myanmar Medical Conference; 2008: 63
- 40 Swe S, Htway EE, Chan N. et al. Blood glucose lowering effect of Tecoma stans (L.) H.B.K. on albino rats. Myanmar Health Research Congress; 2010: 19
- 41 Myint KTY, Myint SH, Zin T, Than MA, Myint MM, Khine MM, Myint MM, Myint SS. Antihyperglycemic activity and related chemical constitutes of Premna integrigolia Linn. (Taung-Tan-Gyi). Myanmar Health Sci Res J 2012; 24 (01) 35-40
- 42 Hla EM, Myint ML, Than MA, Myint KTY, Myint MM. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. and identification of quercetin compound. Myanmar Health Sci Res J (Golden Jubilee Publication) 2013; 25 (01) 67-73
- 43 Chew HM. Woman hospitalized after consuming adulterated ‘health product’ touted as diabetes cure [Internet]. The Straits Times. 2018 [Cited July 23, 2018]. Available at: https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/health/woman-hospitalised-after-consuming-adulterated-health-product-touted-as-diabetes Accessed May 30, 2019