Stress Radiography for the Diagnosis of Medial Glenohumeral Ligament Rupture in Canine ShouldersFunding The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship and/or publication of this article.
01 May 2018
03 May 2019
21 June 2019 (online)
Objectives This study aimed to describe a stress radiography to detect medial glenohumeral ligament rupture and to investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of this test.
Materials and Methods Six adult Beagle cadavers were used. Both shoulders of each dog were randomly assigned into two groups: a normal shoulder group (NS group) and an affected shoulder group (AS group) where the medial glenohumeral ligament was arthroscopically transected. Goniometry, image analysis and radiography (normal and stress views) were performed before and after arthroscopic procedures. An abduction angle was determined for each stress view and an evaluation of the repeatability and the reproducibility was performed.
Results Abduction angles were significantly larger in the AS group as measured by goniometer (p < 0.001), image analysis (p < 0.001) and radiographic stress view (p < 0.001) than in the NS group. The abduction angle difference varied from 12° to 29.3° (median difference of 19.4°) between NS and AS groups. There were good intra-observer and very good inter-observer agreements. A very good (r = 0.74; r = 0.72, respectively) significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation between goniometric and radiographic techniques and between image analysis and radiographic techniques was observed.
Clinical Significance Shoulder abduction angles measured with a stress radiograph-specific view provide objective data that may contribute to diagnosis of medial shoulder instability in dogs.
Véronique Livet, Thibaut Cachon and Juliette Sonet contributed to conception of study, study design, acquisition of data and data analysis and interpretation. Mathieu Harel contributed to study design, acquisition of data and data analysis and interpretation. Mathieu Taroni contributed to data analysis and interpretation. Claude Carozzo contributed to conception of study and data analysis and interpretation. Éric Viguier contributed to conception of study. All authors drafted, revised and approved the submitted manuscript.
- 1 Bardet JF. Diagnosis of shoulder instability in dogs and cats: a retrospective study. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1998; 34 (01) 42-54
- 2 Cogar SM, Cook CR, Curry SL, Grandis A, Cook JL. Prospective evaluation of techniques for differentiating shoulder pathology as a source of forelimb lameness in medium and large breed dogs. Vet Surg 2008; 37 (02) 132-141
- 3 Bardet JF. Shoulder diseases in dogs. Vet Med 2002; 97: 909-918
- 4 Rochat MC. The shoulder. In: Johnston SA, Tobias KM. , eds. Veterinary Surgery: Small Animal. Vol 1. 2nd ed. St Louis: Elsevier; 2017: 800-820
- 5 Sidaway BK, McLaughlin RM, Elder SH, Boyle CR, Silverman EB. Role of the tendons of the biceps brachii and infraspinatus muscles and the medial glenohumeral ligament in the maintenance of passive shoulder joint stability in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2004; 65 (09) 1216-1222
- 6 Cook JL, Renfro DC, Tomlinson JL, Sorensen JE. Measurement of angles of abduction for diagnosis of shoulder instability in dogs using goniometry and digital image analysis. Vet Surg 2005; 34 (05) 463-468
- 7 Cook JL, Tomlinson JL, Fox DB, Kenter K, Cook CR. Treatment of dogs diagnosed with medial shoulder instability using radiofrequency-induced thermal capsulorrhaphy. Vet Surg 2005; 34 (05) 469-475
- 8 Devitt CM, Neely MR, Vanvechten BJ. Relationship of physical examination test of shoulder instability to arthroscopic findings in dogs. Vet Surg 2007; 36 (07) 661-668
- 9 Puglisi TA, Tanger CH, Green RW. , et al. Stress radiography of the canine humeral joint. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1988; 24: 235-240
- 10 Schaefer SL, Baumel CA, Gerbig JR, Forrest LJ. Direct magnetic resonance arthrography of the canine shoulder. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2010; 51 (04) 391-396
- 11 Schaefer SL, Forrest LJ. Magnetic resonance imaging of the canine shoulder: an anatomic study. Vet Surg 2006; 35 (08) 721-728
- 12 Reis Silva H, Uosyte R, Clements DN, Bergkvist GT, Schwarz T. Computed tomography and positive contrast computed tomographic arthrography of the canine shoulder: normal anatomy and effects of limb position on visibility of soft tissue structures. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2013; 54 (05) 470-477
- 13 De Rycke L, van Bree H, Van Caelenberg A, Polis I, Duchateau L, Gielen I. Epinephrine-enhanced computed tomographic arthrography of the canine shoulder. Res Vet Sci 2015; 102: 15-21
- 14 De Rycke LM, Gielen IM, Dingemanse W, Kromhout K, van Bree H. Computed tomographic and low-field magnetic resonance arthrography: a comparison of techniques for observing intra-articular structures of the normal canine shoulder. Vet Surg 2015; 44 (06) 704-712
- 15 Agnello KA, Puchalski SM, Wisner ER, Schulz KS, Kapatkin AS. Effect of positioning, scan plane, and arthrography on visibility of periarticular canine shoulder soft tissue structures on magnetic resonance images. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2008; 49 (06) 529-539
- 16 Murphy SE, Ballegeer EA, Forrest LJ, Schaefer SL. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in dogs with confirmed shoulder pathology. Vet Surg 2008; 37 (07) 631-638
- 17 Beale BS, Hulse DA, Schulz KS. , et al. Shoulder arthroscopy. In: Beale BS, Hulse DA, Schulz KS. , et al, eds. Small Animal Arthroscopy. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2003: 23-49
- 18 Lin L. A note on the concordance correlation coefficient. Biometrics 2000; 56: 324-325
- 19 Lin LI. A concordance correlation coefficient to evaluate reproducibility. Biometrics 1989; 45 (01) 255-268
- 20 Barnhart HX, Haber M, Song J. Overall concordance correlation coefficient for evaluating agreement among multiple observers. Biometrics 2002; 58 (04) 1020-1027
- 21 Lin L, Hedayat AS, Wu W. A unified approach for assessing agreement for continuous and categorical data. J Biopharm Stat 2007; 17 (04) 629-652
- 22 Dohoo IR, Martin SW, Stryhn H. Screening and diagnostic tests. In: Dohoo IR, Martin SW, Stryhn H. , eds. Veterinary Epidemiologic Research. 2nd ed. Charlottetown: AVC Incorporation; 2003: 92-135
- 23 Tomlinson J, Fox D, Cook JL, Keller GG. Measurement of femoral angles in four dog breeds. Vet Surg 2007; 36 (06) 593-598
- 24 Fox DB, Tomlinson JL, Cook JL, Breshears LM. Principles of uniapical and biapical radial deformity correction using dome osteotomies and the center of rotation of angulation methodology in dogs. Vet Surg 2006; 35 (01) 67-77