CC BY 4.0 · J Brachial Plex Peripher Nerve Inj 2019; 14(01): e24-e34
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1692420
Review Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

The Pathogenesis of Glenohumeral Deformity and Contracture Formation in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy—A Review

Pontus N. Olofsson
1  Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery, Norrland's University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden
2  Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
,
Alice Chu
3  Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York, New York, United States
,
Aleksandra M. McGrath
1  Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery, Norrland's University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden
2  Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
4  Department of Clinical Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

14 March 2018

05 November 2018

Publication Date:
12 July 2019 (online)

  

Abstract

Contractures of the shoulder joint and glenohumeral joint dysplasia are well known complications to obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Despite extensive description of these sequelae, the exact pathogenesis remains unknown. The prevailing theory to explain the contractures and glenohumeral joint dysplasia states that upper trunk injury leads to nonuniform muscle recovery and thus imbalance between internal and external rotators of the shoulder. More recently, another explanation has been proposed, hypothesizing that denervation leads to reduced growth of developing muscles and that reinnervation might suppress contracture formation. An understanding of the pathogenesis is desirable for development of effective prophylactic treatment. This article aims to describe the current state of knowledge regarding these important complications.