Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2019; 32(06): 427-432
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1692410
Original Research
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Measurement of Shoulder Abduction Angles in Dogs: An Ex Vivo Study of Accuracy and Repeatability

1  Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, United States
,
James Howard
1  Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, United States
,
Judith Bertran
1  Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, United States
,
Brittney Johnson
1  Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, United States
,
Antonio Pozzi
2  Department for Small Animals, Vetsuisse University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
,
Alan S. Litsky
3  Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, College of Engineering, Columbus, Ohio, United States
4  Department of Orthopaedics, Ohio State University, College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, United States
,
Thomas E. Wittum
5  Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, United States
,
Nina Kieves
1  Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, United States
› Author Affiliations
Funding This project was supported by an intra-mural grant from The Ohio State University, Consortium for the Advancement of Neuromusculoskeletal Science and Locomotion.
Further Information

Publication History

31 December 2018

03 May 2019

Publication Date:
21 June 2019 (online)

Abstract

Objective The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and repeatability of the shoulder abduction test and to assess the effect of transection of the medial shoulder support structures in canine cadavers.

Materials and Methods The shoulder abduction angle was measured by three separate observers, both with the shoulder extended and at a neutral angle. Shoulder abduction was then measured, using craniocaudal fluoroscopic images. Arthroscopy was performed in all shoulder joints, with the medial support structures transected in one shoulder of each dog. The three observers again measured shoulder abduction angles in all dogs. Shoulder abduction was measured again using fluoroscopy. Accuracy and repeatability of the abduction test were assessed using linear mixed models.

Results All three observers had different measured abduction angles when compared with fluoroscopy (p < 0.01); however, the experienced surgeon had an error of only 2.9°. Inter-observer repeatability was poor, with all three observers having different abduction measurements (p < 0.001). Intra-observer repeatability, however, indicated no differences on repeated measurements (p = 0.26). Placing the shoulder at a neutral standing angle, and transection of support structures caused an average increase in abduction by 8.2° (p < 0.001) and 4.4° respectively.

Conclusion Significant variation exists between observers performing this test, increased accuracy seen in the more experienced observer. Shoulder flexion angle can significantly affect measured abduction angles.

Author Contribution

Stephen C. Jones contributed to conception of study, study design and data acquisition, analysis and interpretation. James Howard, Judith Bertran, Brittney Johnson and Nina Kieves contributed to study design and data acquisition. Antonio Pozzi and Alan Litsky contributed to the study design. Tom Wittum performed the statistical analysis and interpretation. All authors contributed to writing and revising the manuscript and all authors approved the manuscript.