Synthesis 2020; 52(05): 660-672
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1690780
short review
© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

Synthetic Approaches to Unsymmetrically Substituted 5,7-Dihydroxycoumarins

Ramil F. Fatykhov
a  Department of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, Ural Federal University, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation
,
a  Department of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, Ural Federal University, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation
b  Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskoy 22, 620219 Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation   Email: i.a.khalymbadzha@urfu.ru
,
Anna K. Inyutina
a  Department of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, Ural Federal University, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation
,
a  Department of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, Ural Federal University, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation
b  Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskoy 22, 620219 Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation   Email: i.a.khalymbadzha@urfu.ru
› Author Affiliations
We are grateful to the Russian Science Foundation (project #18-73-00163) for financial support.
Further Information

Publication History

Received: 08 November 2019

Accepted after revision: 29 November 2019

Publication Date:
02 January 2020 (online)


Abstract

The chemical equivalence of the hydroxy groups in the 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin core has challenged synthetic chemists to develop short and efficient strategies for the selective modification of one of the hydroxy groups leaving the second intact. Over the past 100 years, chemists have proposed various approaches to distinguishing between these two groups according to their reactivity. While the early syntheses included simple nonselective reactions of both hydroxy groups and the subsequent separation of mixtures of the 5-O- and 7-O-isomers formed, recent sophisticated approaches often include the introduction of protective groups for selective directing reactions or the completely controlled construction of the 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin framework by Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons reaction. This review discusses in detail approaches towards unsymmetrically substituted 5,7-dihydroxycoumarins as well as factors influencing 5-O vs. 7-O regioselectivity of reactions of 5,7-dihydroxycoumarins. This review covers all the literature since 1921 with an emphasis on recent works. This critical review may facilitate the synthesis of new drug candidates as well as the total synthesis of natural products.

1 Introduction

2 O-Modification of 5,7-Dihydroxycoumarins

2.1 Alkylation/Alkenylation

2.2 Acylation

2.3 Sulfonylation

2.4 Silylation

2.5 Acylation Followed by Alkylation

3 Other Approaches

3.1 Synthesis from Substituted Phloroglucinol

3.2 Synthesis from Derivatives of 2-Acylphloroglucinol

4 Conclusion

 
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