CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · National Journal of Clinical Anatomy 2019; 08(02): 077-081
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1688547
Original Article
Society of Clinical Anatomists

Study of Nutrient Foramina in Human Typical Long Bones of Lower Limb

Ajay Parmar
1  Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Dungarpur, Rajasthan, India
Pankaj Maheria
2  Department of Anatomy, GMERS Medical College, Dharpur Patan, Gujarat, India
Kanan Shah
3  Department of Anatomy, Smt. NHL Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
02 July 2019 (online)



Background and Aim Nutrient foramina form important landmarks on human bones as they form portal of entry for nutrient artery. Nutrient artery is an important source of blood supply for a growing bone. Different parameters of nutrient foramina are important in various procedures such as vascularized bone grafting, tumor resections, fracture repair, and other surgical procedures in orthopedics. The objective of the present study was to report the number, position, direction, size, and foraminal index of nutrient foramen in the femur, tibia, and fibula.

Materials and Methods The present study analyzed the location, direction, size, and the number of nutrient foramina in the diaphysis of 180 long bones of the lower limbs of adults: 60 femurs, 60 tibiae, and 60 fibulae.

Result The location of the nutrient foramina is predominant on the posterior aspect of the lower limb long bones. Single nutrient foramen found in the tibia (100%), femur (48.3%), and fibula (60%) may represent as a single source of blood supply. The majority of the femur (50%) and few fibulae (5%) had a double nutrient foramen. The mean foraminal index for the lower limb bones was 40.5% for the left and 38.2% for the right side of the femur, 31.69% for the left and 32.3% for the right side of the tibia, and 32.7% for the left and 31.7% for the right side of the fibula.

Conclusion The present study provides information on the number, size, position, and direction of nutrient foramina of the femur, tibia, and fibula bones.