Differential effects of macronutrient composition on satiety after weight loss in overweight and obese adults – results of a randomized trial
07 May 2019 (online)
Satiety is a complex set of feelings usually inducing the end of a meal. It is crucial in determining calorie intake and consequently body weight homeostasis. Weight maintenance after weight loss is still a challenge and there is conflicting data regarding the optimal macronutrient composition to avoid body weight regain. We investigated individual satiety responses to different macronutrient compositions before and after weight loss to identify individual differences which might be relevant for long-term weight loss.
32 participants (age > 18 years, BMI > 25 kg/m2) were recruited and consumed three test meals with different macronutrient compositions (high protein, high fat, high carb) before and after 3 months of weight loss. We examined satiety (hunger, fullness, prospective food consumption (PFC), desire to eat (DTE)) to test meals using visual analogue scales.
Intervention led to weight loss in particpants (BMI – 4,21 ± 1,23 kg/m2). Analyses using linear mixed models revealed no effect of weight loss on satiety (p > 0,1). However, there was an influence of BMI (p < 0,05). Male gender had an effect on hunger, PFC, and DTE (p < 0,05) but not fullness (p = 0,72). Protein diet led to smaller PFC and DTE (p < 0,01). There was no differential effect of diet or its interaction with weight loss on satiety.
There seems to be no differential effect of weight loss or its interaction with macronutrient composition on measures of satiety. However, satiety seemed to be better with protein diet and lower