Semin Neurol 2019; 39(04): 419-427
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1687839
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Five Emerging Neuroinvasive Arboviral Diseases: Cache Valley, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, and Usutu

Christine M. Gill
1  Neuro-Infectious Diseases Group, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado
,
J. David Beckham
1  Neuro-Infectious Diseases Group, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado
,
1  Neuro-Infectious Diseases Group, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado
,
Kenneth L. Tyler
1  Neuro-Infectious Diseases Group, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado
,
Daniel M. Pastula
1  Neuro-Infectious Diseases Group, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado
2  Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
18 September 2019 (online)

Abstract

There are many arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) capable of neuroinvasion, with West Nile virus being one of the most well known. In this review, we highlight five rarer emerging or reemerging arboviruses capable of neuroinvasion: Cache Valley, eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, and Usutu viruses. Cache Valley and Jamestown Canyon viruses likely circulate throughout most of North America, while eastern equine encephalitis and Powassan viruses typically circulate in the eastern half. Usutu virus is not currently circulating in North America, but has the potential to be introduced in the future given similar climate, vectors, and host species to Europe (where it has been circulating). Health care providers should contact their state or local health departments with any questions regarding arboviral disease surveillance, diagnosis, treatment, or prevention. To prevent neuroinvasive arboviral diseases, use of insect repellent and other mosquito and tick bite prevention strategies are key.

Disclaimer

The authors have nothing to disclose and have no financial conflicts of interest. The findings and conclusions of this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Colorado, state health departments, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.