Semin Liver Dis 2019; 39(02): 124-140
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1679920
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Genetics of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: From Pathogenesis to Therapeutics

Silvia Sookoian
1  Institute of Medical Research A Lanari, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (C1427ARN), Argentina
2  Department of Clinical and Molecular Hepatology, National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), University of Buenos Aires, Institute of Medical Research (IDIM), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (C1427ARN), Argentina
,
Carlos J. Pirola
1  Institute of Medical Research A Lanari, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (C1427ARN), Argentina
3  Department of Molecular Genetics and Biology of Complex Diseases, National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), University of Buenos Aires, Institute of Medical Research (IDIM), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (C1427ARN), Argentina
› Author Affiliations
FundingAgencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica, Fondo para la Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (Fon-CyT) (PICT 2014-0432 and PICT 2015-0551 to S.S. and PICT 2014-1816 and PICT 2016-0135 to C.J.P.).
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
25 March 2019 (eFirst)

Abstract

Here, the authors review the remarkable genetic discoveries that have illuminated the biology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The authors integrate genes associated with NAFLD and NASH into regulatory pathways to elucidate the disease pathogenesis. They review the evidence for molecular mediators of chronic liver damage, which suggests that convergent pathophenotypes, including inflammation and fibrosis, share common genetic modifiers. They further demonstrate that genes involved in the genetic susceptibility of NAFLD and NASH participate in cross-phenotype associations with diseases of the metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. However, immune-related loci associated with NAFLD and NASH exhibit some level of pleiotropy influencing disparate phenotypes, such as premature birth or sepsis. They finally focus on the translation of current genetic knowledge of NAFLD and NASH toward precision medicine. They provide evidence of genetic findings that can be leveraged to identify therapeutic targets.

Note

The authors apologize to the colleagues whose works could not be cited owing to manuscript length limitations.