Semin Liver Dis 2019; 39(02): 261-274
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1678725
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Liver Cancer Gene Discovery Using Gene Targeting, Sleeping Beauty, and CRISPR/Cas9

Julia E. Kieckhaefer
1  Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
,
Flavio Maina
2  Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, Developmental Biology Institute of Marseille (IBDM) UMR 7288, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Marseille, France
,
Rebecca G. Wells
1  Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
3  Penn NCI Physical Sciences in Oncology Center PSOC@Penn and the NSF Center for Engineering MechanoBiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
,
Kirk J. Wangensteen
1  Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
› Author Affiliations
Financial Support This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (K08-DK106478 to K.J.W.) and by the NIH Physical Sciences in Oncology Network center PSOC@Penn (U54-CA193417).
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
25 March 2019 (eFirst)

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a devastating and prevalent cancer with limited treatment options. Technological advances have enabled genetic screens to be employed in HCC model systems to characterize genes regulating tumor initiation and growth. Relative to traditional methods for studying cancer biology, such as candidate gene approaches or expression analysis, genetic screens have several advantages: they are unbiased, with no a priori selection; can directly annotate gene function; and can uncover gene–gene interactions. In HCC, three main types of screens have been conducted and are reviewed here: (1) transposon-based mutagenesis screens, (2) knockdown screens using RNA interference (RNAi) or the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and (3) overexpression screens using CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) or cDNAs. These methods will be valuable in future genetic screens to delineate the mechanisms underlying drug resistance and to identify new treatments for HCC.

Financial Support

This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (K08-DK106478 to K.J.W.) and by the NIH Physical Sciences in Oncology Network center PSOC@Penn (U54-CA193417).