J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2020; 81(01): 015-021
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1678708
Original Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Clinical Predictors Leading to Change of Initial Conservative Treatment of 836 Vestibular Schwannomas

Maarten Kleijwegt
1  Department of ENT, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
,
Floris Bettink
1  Department of ENT, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
,
Martijn Malessy
2  Department of Neurosurgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
,
Hein Putter
3  Department of Medical Statistics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
,
Andel van der Mey
1  Department of ENT, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

03 October 2018

11 January 2019

Publication Date:
04 February 2019 (online)

Abstract

Objective This study was aimed to determine the role of clinical presentation and tumor characteristics in vestibular schwannoma (VS) at diagnosis, initially treated with conservative management.

Design The study was designed as a retrospective chart review.

Setting The study was prepared at national tertiary referral center for VS patients.

Participants A total of 836 VS patients, initially treated conservatively, were included.

Main Outcome Measures Patient characteristics: age at diagnosis, gender, frequency, and duration of, hearing loss, tinnitus, balance disorder (unsteadiness, dizziness, and vertigo), respectively; and tumor characteristics: laterality, growth, cystic component, and location were analyzed in relation to tumor size at diagnosis and change in treatment strategy.

Results In total, 169 (20%) patients had a change in treatment strategy. Factors at diagnosis that had a high influence on intervention were a short duration of hearing loss (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.8, p < 0.001) and cystic tumors (HR = 2.6, p < 0.001). Balance disorders and extracanalicular (EC) tumor location have a medium influence on intervention (HR = 1.6, p < 0.01). Tumour growth was seen in 55% of the intervention group; we found a significant correlation with a short duration of hearing loss. Cystic VS was significantly higher between the medium and large tumors, 24.3% and 38.1%. (p = 0.001), respectively.

Conclusions Patients with a short duration of hearing loss, balance disorders, EC located tumors, and cystic tumors have a significantly higher chance of a change in treatment strategy. Large tumor size at diagnosis and a cystic component were related to age > 65 years at diagnosis.