Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2019; 32(02): 087-096
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1677513
Review Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Role of Elbow Incongruity in Canine Elbow Dysplasia: Advances in Diagnostics and Biomechanics

Sofia Alves-Pimenta
1  Department of Animal Science, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
2  CITAB—Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
,
Mário Manuel Ginja
2  CITAB—Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
3  Department of Veterinary Science, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
,
Bruno Colaço
1  Department of Animal Science, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
2  CITAB—Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
› Author Affiliations
Funding This study was funded by the FEDER/COMPETE/POCI—Operational Competitiveness and Internationalization Program; FCT—Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. Grant numbers: POCI-01–0145-FEDER-006958 and UID/AGR/04033/2013.
Further Information

Publication History

19 July 2018

21 November 2018

Publication Date:
31 January 2019 (eFirst)

Abstract

Elbow incongruity plays an important role in the development of elbow dysplasia and its diagnosis can be challenging. The objectives of this systematic review were to discuss elbow biomechanics and recent advances in the assessment of incongruity, to revise the diagnostic protocols suggested, debate advantages and disadvantages of measurements proposed to characterize the joint and improve screening.

In spite of advances in the understanding of elbow incongruity, the exact mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. The elbow is a complex joint and structures in contact differ in different phases of the gait cycle. Advances in the biomechanical field allowed new discoveries and a physiological type of incongruity was described. The next challenge is to unravel the dynamic incongruity. Radiology and computed tomography (CT) are nowadays the imaging tools more applied in clinical practice to quantify incongruity. But a CT standardized screening protocol is required. Most reported findings of incongruity were increased articular joint spaces. The proximity of joint structures and standardization of elbow positioning are identified as the main obstacles to a good interpretation. This review serves to highlight controversy between physiological types of cartilage covering described and pathological changes reported in arthroscopic studies. Radioulnar incongruity was reported more often than humeroulnar incongruity, yet prevalence studies are lacking. Sensitive and reproducible methodologies are in development, which seem primordial to assess the phenotypic heterogeneity.

Author Contribution

Sofia Alves-Pimenta, Mário Manuel Ginja and Bruno Colaço contributed to the conception of the study, study design, selection of articles for revision, analysis and interpretation. Sofia Alves-Pimenta drafted and all authors revised and approved the submitted manuscript.


None of the authors of this article has a financial or personal relationship with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence or bias the content of the paper.


All the animal procedures undertaken as part of the work described in this article were performed in compliance with the regulations of our institutions, and in accordance with the Portuguese and European regulations for animal use and care (European Directive 2010/63/EU and National Decree-Law 113/2013).