Semin Hear 2019; 40(01): 049-067
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1676783
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Development and Formative Assessment of the Hearing Loss Toolkit for Self-Management

Michelle L. Arnold
1   Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee, Sarasota, Florida
2   School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida
Preyanca Oree
1   Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee, Sarasota, Florida
Victoria Sanchez
1   Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee, Sarasota, Florida
Nicholas Reed
3   Department of Otolaryngology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
4   Center on Aging and Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
Theresa Chisolm
1   Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee, Sarasota, Florida
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
05 February 2019 (online)


Hearing aids are a demonstrated efficacious intervention for age-related hearing loss, and research suggests that good hearing loss self-management skills improve amplification satisfaction and outcomes. One way to foster self-management skills is through the provision of patient education materials. However, many of the available resources related to the management of hearing loss do not account for health literacy and are not suitable for use with adults from varying health literacy backgrounds. To address this issue, we developed the Hearing Loss Toolkit for Self-Management as part of a manualized, best practices hearing intervention used in large clinical trial. We incorporated health literacy recommendations from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality in a series of modules that address a variety of common problem areas reported by adults with hearing loss. A formative assessment consisting of feedback questionnaires, semistructured interviews, and a focus group session with representatives from the target audience was conducted. Findings from the development assessment process demonstrate that the Hearing Loss Toolkit for Self-Management is suitable for use with adults with age-related hearing loss who have varying health literacy backgrounds and abilities.

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