Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2019; 32(02): 112-116
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1676460
Original Research
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Biomechanical Comparison of Four Methods of Fixation of a Polymeric Cranial Cruciate Ligament in the Canine Femur and Tibia

Matthew D. Barnhart
1  MedVet Medical and Cancer Centers, Worthington, Ohio, United States
Brian W. Bufkin
2  MedVet Medical and Cancer Centers, Mobile, Alabama, United States
Alan S. Litsky
3  Department of Orthopaedics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
4  Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
› Author Affiliations
Funding This study was funded by the Securos Orthopedic Institute, Securos Surgical, Fiskdale MA.
Further Information

Publication History

23 August 2018

09 October 2018

Publication Date:
13 February 2019 (eFirst)


Objective The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of four different methods of artificial cranial cruciate ligament fixation in canine cadaveric tibias and femurs.

Methods Femurs and tibias from skeletally mature large breed canine cadavers were assigned into four fixation groups: group 1, 4.5-mm interference screw (IS); group 2, 4.5-mm IS and 4.0-mm screw and spiked washer (SW); group 3, 5.0-mm IS; group 4, 5.0-mm IS + SW.

Results The mean ultimate load was significantly greater for femur fixations than for tibias, when a SW was added, and for 5.0-mm IS compared with 4.5-mm sizes. There was also a significant interaction between SW and IS size. A SW significantly increased stiffness, a 5.0-mm IS in femurs provided more stiffness than 4.5-mm IS and was greater than 5.0-mm IS in tibias. In tibias, a 4.5-mm IS was stiffer than a 5.0-mm IS and a 4.5 IS + SW had greater stiffness than a 5.0-mm IS + SW. Groups 1 to 3 and tibias in group 4 failed by artificial ligament pullout. Nine femurs in group 4 failed by fracture, 5 by artificial ligament pullout, and 1 by artificial ligament tearing.

Clinical Significance A 5.0-mm IS + SW provided superior artificial ligament fixation strength in femurs and tibias compared with a 4.5-mm IS without SW. Overall, artificial ligament fixation with 5.0-mm IS in femurs had the mechanical characteristics that most closely matched those reported in normal canine cranial cruciate ligaments.

Author Contribution

Matthew D. Barnhart contributed to conception of study, study design, acquisition of data and data analysis and interpretation. Brian W. Bufkin and Alan S. Litsky contributed to acquisition of data and data analysis and interpretation. All authors drafted, revised and approved the submitted manuscript.