Semin Thromb Hemost 2019; 45(02): 132-140
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1676374
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Pathological Clotting and Deep Vein Thrombosis in Patients with HIV

Brandon S. Jackson
1  Department of Surgery, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
,
Etheresia Pretorius
2  Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, Matieland, South Africa
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
19 December 2018 (eFirst)

Abstract

The number of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rapidly increasing and the majority of those infected are living in sub-Saharan Africa. Some hallmarks of HIV are inflammation and upregulation of inflammatory markers. A pathological coagulation system may accompany these inflammatory changes and potentially result in venous thromboembolism such as a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In this review, the authors describe the inflammatory profile in HIV, the treatment regimens currently in place in South Africa, and in particular how HIV affects the hematological system, with specific focus on platelets, red blood cells (RBCs; erythrocytes), and fibrin(ogen). They also discuss the presence of DVT in HIV, focus on screening tests, and suggest a more proactive approach to track the inflammatory profile of HIV patients, by specifically using parameters that might point to pathological coagulation; these should involve platelet, RBC, and fibrin(ogen) analysis. They conclude by suggesting that including coagulation function tests to study the effect of treatment interventions would improve outcomes in these individuals, as it could help in the diagnosis of thromboembolic disease. Furthermore, this approach could streamline treatment strategies due to improved monitoring. A better understanding of hypercoagulability of HIV-infected patients is therefore urgently needed. In conclusion, the authors suggest a panel of pathology tests that should be considered as standard procedures when HIV is present.

Competing Interests

None.