J Pediatr Epilepsy 2018; 07(02): 052-062
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1668592
Review Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Electroencephalography Findings in Autoimmune and Neuroinflammation-Related Epilepsies

Jeong-A Kim
1  Carman and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit Medical Center Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States
2  Carman and Ann Adams Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit Medical Center Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States
,
Dara V.F. Albert
3  Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
4  Division of Neurology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
,
Amanda R.B. Weber
1  Carman and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit Medical Center Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States
2  Carman and Ann Adams Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit Medical Center Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

02 June 2018

20 June 2018

Publication Date:
03 September 2018 (eFirst)

Abstract

Autoimmune epilepsy occurs in association with localized central nervous system or systemic immune-mediated inflammation. Traditional anticonvulsant medications are frequently ineffective, and alternative approaches including immunomodulatory agents may be required. Identification of patients with autoimmune epilepsy may be challenging due to the variability of presentation and normal or nonspecific diagnostic results. Electroencephalography (EEG) features tend to include patterns of encephalopathy, generalized or focal interictal epileptiform abnormalities, or status epilepticus. Occasionally, specific EEG features may lend insight into the diagnosis. In this review article, we discuss EEG features of several suspected or proven immune-mediated pediatric epilepsies, including Rasmussen's encephalitis, idiopathic hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome, febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome, epilepsies associated with autoantibodies to neuronal surface or intracellular antigens, and other systemic autoimmune diseases.