Homeopathy 2018; 107(03): 189-195
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1656513
Review Article
The Faculty of Homeopathy

Ultra-High Dilutions and Homeopathy: Can They Be Explained without Non-Local Theory?

Yannis Almirantis
1   Institute of Biosciences and Applications, National Centre for Scientific Research ‘Demokritos’, Athens, Greece
Konstantinos Tsitinidis
2   ‘Homeopathie’, Homeopathy Centre, Athens, Greece
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

01 June 2017

12 April 2018

Publication Date:
05 June 2018 (online)


We discuss questions related to the ‘Benveniste Affair’, its consequences and broader issues in an attempt to understand homeopathy. Specifically, we address the following points:

1. The relationship between the experiments conducted by Benveniste, Montagnier, their collaborators and groups that independently tested their results, and ‘traditional’ homeopathy.

2. Possible non-local components such as ‘generalised entanglement’ as the basis of the homeopathic phenomenon and experimental evidence for them.

3. The capability of highly diluted homeopathic remedies to provoke tangible biological changes in whole organisms and cellular experimental systems.

4. Aspects of the similia principle related to the above.

5. Suggestions that can lead to experimental verifications of the non-local hypothesis in homeopathy.


• Non-local explanations for the effects of homeopathy arose from the controversial work of Jacques Benveniste.

• An attempt to demonstrate transmission of the activity of a potentised solution was unsuccessful, but a critical experimenter effect was detected.

• Multiple repetitions of the human basophil degranulation experiments similar to Benveniste's have shown positive results.

• Other workers have proposed non-local hypotheses based on weak quantum theory. These have some experimental support.