Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2018; 31(04): 279-284
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1651499
Original Research
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Sonoelastographic Features of the Patellar Ligament in Clinically Normal Dogs

Angela P. Piccionello
1  School of Bioscience and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Matelica, Italy
,
Daniele Serrani
1  School of Bioscience and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Matelica, Italy
,
Valeria Busoni
2  Department of Imaging, Faculté de Médicine Vétérinaire, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium
,
Alberto Salvaggio
1  School of Bioscience and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Matelica, Italy
,
Mattia Bonazzi
3  Casa di Cura Veterinaria San Geminiano, Modena, Italy
,
Chiara Bergamino
4  Department of Diagnostic Imaging, School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, College of Agriculture Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, Dublin, Ireland
,
Antonella Volta
5  Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.
Further Information

Publication History

06 November 2017

26 March 2018

Publication Date:
11 June 2018 (eFirst)

Abstract

Objective This article describes the sonoelastographic features of the patellar ligament of sound dogs and tests feasibility, reproducibility and repeatability.

Methods Clinically healthy medium-to-large breed dogs were enrolled. Sonoelastographic images of the patellar ligaments were obtained in lateral recumbency with the stifle flexed by an experienced operator and by a senior veterinary student. The elasticity colour map included red (soft), green (intermediate) and blue (hard). Tissue elasticity was measured by calculating the percentage of softness with dedicated software. Categorical, qualitative data analysis was performed using a weighted kappa statistic for repeatability and reproducibility. A categorical qualitative assessment was performed based on a grading scale of 1 to 5 (soft, mostly soft, intermediate, mostly hard and hard).

Results Fourteen clinically normal dogs were considered. A total of 28 patellar ligaments were examined. Overall, 25 of the patellar ligaments were graded as soft or mostly soft and the remaining 3 as intermediate. Repeatability was 86.2%, with a weighted kappa of 0.64 (good), for the well-trained sonographer and 83.3%, with a weighted kappa of 0.53 (moderate), for the senior student. Reproducibility was 86.2%, with a weighed kappa of 0.65 (good).

Clinical Significance Sonoelastography of the canine patellar ligament is a feasible and reproducible technique. Patellar ligaments in clinically normal dogs showed highly elastic biomechanical properties.

Supplementary Material