Semin Plast Surg 2018; 32(02): 090-094
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1642638
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Scalp and Forehead Reconstruction

Mofiyinfolu Sokoya
1  Department of Otolaryngology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado
Jared Inman
2  Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California
Yadranko Ducic
3  Department of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
14 May 2018 (online)


Reconstructing the scalp and forehead is a challenging endeavor frequently undertaken by facial plastic and reconstructive surgeons. There are many anatomical factors to be considered in this area, including multiple neurovascular structure present that should be identified and preserved. Hair morphology and physiology should be considered, and trichophytic techniques should be incorporated into incision planning and closure. The reconstructive ladder must be used when considering options in reconstructing scalps and forehead defects. This article reviews reconstructive options including secondary intention, primary closure, skin grafting, allografts, tissue expanders, and local, regional, and free tissue transfers, among others in the surgical management of forehead and scalp defects. The reconstructive surgeon should be familiar with these techniques and be able to use them when indicated, based on the size, shape, and location of defects.