Homeopathy 2018; 107(03): 172-180
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1642055
Review Article
The Faculty of Homeopathy

Water-Related Mechanisms Proposed for Storing and Transmitting Homeopathic Information: Putative Links with Biological Responses

José Roberto Pereira Guedes
Laboratory of Histomorphometry and Lung Genomics, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
,
Leoni Villano Bonamin
Department of Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Research Center, University Paulista, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
,
Vera Luiza Capelozzi
Laboratory of Histomorphometry and Lung Genomics, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

25 August 2016

05 March 2018

Publication Date:
16 May 2018 (eFirst)

Abstract

Introduction There are two critical pillars of homeopathy that contrast with the dominant scientific approach: the similitude principle and the potentization of serial dilutions. Three main hypotheses about the mechanisms of action are in discussion: nanobubbles-related hormesis; vehicle-related electric resonance; and quantum non-locality.

Objectives The aim of this paper is to review and discuss some key points of such properties: the imprint of supramolecular structures based on the nanoparticle-allostatic, cross-adaptation-sensitization (NPCAS) model; the theory of non-molecular electromagnetic transfer of information, based on the coherent water domains model, and relying (like the NPCAS model) on the idea of local interactions; and the hypothesis of quantum entanglement, based on the concept of non-locality.

Results and Discussion The nanoparticles hypothesis has been considered since 2010, after the demonstration of suspended metal nanoparticles even in very highly diluted remedies: their actual action on biological structures is still under scrutiny. The second hypothesis considers the idea of electric resonance mechanisms between living systems (including intracellular water) and homeopathic medicines: recent findings about potency-related physical properties corroborate it. Finally, quantum theory of ‘non-local’ phenomena inspires the idea of an ‘entanglement’ process among patient, practitioner and the remedy: that quantic phenomena could occur in supra-atomic structures remains speculative however.

Conclusion Further studies are needed to ascertain whether and which of these hypotheses may be related to potential cellular effects of homeopathic preparations, such as organization of metabolic pathways or selective gene expression.

Highlights

• A challenge for homeopathy researchers is to explain the storage of information in high dilutions, beyond the Avogadro–Loschmidt limit, and the transfer of this information to living systems.


• The nanoparticles hypothesis has been considered, after the demonstration of suspended metal nanoparticles even in very highly diluted remedies.


• The hypothesis of electric resonance mechanisms connects living systems with homeopathic medicines, and recent findings about potency-related physical properties corroborate it.


• The quantum theory of ‘non-local’ phenomena inspires the idea of an ‘entanglement’ process among patient, practitioner and the remedy.


• Further studies are needed to ascertain whether these hypotheses can be related to cellular effects of homeopathic preparations, such as organization of metabolic pathways or selective gene expression.