J Pediatr Neurol 2019; 17(03): 095-104
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1641582
Review Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Neonatal Microbiome and the Gut–Brain Axis: Is It the Origin of Adult Diseases?

Yssra S. Soliman
1  Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States
Islam T. Elkhateb
2  Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cairo University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt
Hany Z. Aly
3  Department of Neonatology, Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio, United States
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.
Further Information

Publication History

13 December 2017

02 March 2018

Publication Date:
13 April 2018 (online)


The gut–brain axis may contribute to the pathophysiology of a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases and chronic illnesses of adulthood. A literature search was completed using PubMed and the following keywords: “gut microbiota,” “breast milk,” “schizophrenia,” “irritable bowel syndrome,” “obesity,” “anorexia and bulimia nervosa,” and “depression.” The search was limited to articles available in English and published in the past 20 years. The human microbiota is essential to normal structure and function. The relationship of microbiota and the central nervous system is called the gut–brain axis, which may be responsible for many pathologic conditions. Research is needed to confirm this association and unveil the pathogenesis of this phenomenon.


No approval from the Institutional Review Board is required.