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Preliminary Study on Force-Like Effects between As45x, Water, and Wheat Seeds Performed by Means of the Droplet Evaporation Method
05 February 2018 (online)
Background: In homeopathy, it is usually assumed that ultra-high dilutions (UHDs) need to come in direct contact with the organism to be treated to exhibit their action. However, it has been observed in some models that UHDs may influence organisms also at a distance. Here, we test whether the droplet evaporation method (DEM) might serve as a tool to study such force-like influences. In a series of three DEM experiments (E1–E3), we studied (1) force-like effects occurring between As2O3 45x treatment (As45x) and undiluted, unsuccussed, ultrapure water (W), (2) As45x and wheat seeds, as also (3) whether force-like effects may be shielded by means of aluminum foil.
Materials and Methods: Bilayer recipients (falcon tubes of two different sizes put one into another) were used to place near each other, but without a physical contact in E1 As45x and water (called further waterE1), in E2 As45x and seeds (seedsE2), and in E3 As45x and seeds wrapped or not in aluminum foil (seedsE3). After 1 week, in E1 wheat seeds were added to the waterE1 and in E2–3 fresh water to seedsE2 and seedsE3. The 1-hour leakage droplets were then put on slides and evaporated. The resulting patterns were evaluated for their local connected fractal dimension (LCFD).
Results: The homeopathic effects passed from As45x to water E1, seeds E2, and seeds E3 through the recipient polyethylene.
Conclusion: Our results confirm that UHDs may pass their effects at a distance on water and seeds. Such effects should be considered in homeopathy research, and preventive measures should be applied to avoid cross-over contamination.
Keywords: Effects at distance, field effects, homeopathy, droplet evaporation, patterns