Subscribe to RSS
Incidence of Canine Appendicular Musculoskeletal Disorders in 16 Veterinary Teaching Hospitals from 1980 through 1989
Received for publication
02 February 1994
09 February 2018 (online)
The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders in a large canine population. Patient information was obtained from clinical cases contributed to the Veterinary Medical Data Base (VMDB) by 16 veterinary teaching hospitals during the ten year period of 1980 through 1989. The relative contribution of bone diseases, joint diseases, and muscle-tendon-unit diseases was determined, and the incidence of each musculoskeletal disease reported.
Nearly 24% of all patients in the source population had been affected by a disorder of the musculoskeletal system, and over 70% of those diagnoses involved appendicular structures. Diseases of joints, ligaments, and related structures contributed more cases (47%) to this study than diseases of bones (39%) or muscle-tendon-units (14%). Fractures made up the largest disease category, with pelvic fractures most common, followed by femoral fractures, and fractures of the radius and/or ulna. Joint instability and degenerative joint dis-
ease were also common diagnosis categories, affecting primarily the hip and stifle joints. Common specific dis-ease entities included hip dysplasia, cruciate ligament rupture, traumatic hip luxation and patellar luxation.
In this study we provided a comprehensive analysis of the canine musculoskeletal system. The relative importance of joint disorders compared to those of bones and muscle-tendon-units was illustrated. The incidence of most of the disorders described in this report had not been well documented previously.
Patient information was obtained from the clinical cases of 16 veterinary teaching hospitals during a 10-year period. The number of dogs with musculoskeletal disorders was determined. The absolute and relative contribution of bone diseases, joint diseases, and muscle-tendon-unit diseases is reported as well as the incidence of the specific disease entities affecting the canine appendicular musculoskeletal system.
- 1 Wind AP, Packard ME. Elbow incongruity and development elbow diseases in the dog: part II. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1986; 22: 725-30.
- 2 Rudd RG, Whitehair JG, Margolis JH. Results of management of osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral head in dogs: 44 cases (1982 to 1987). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1990; 26: 173-8.
- 3 Slater MT. et al. Diet and exercise as potential risk factors for osteochondritis dissecans in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1992; 53: 2119-24.
- 4 Slater MR, Scarlett JM, Kaderly RE, Bennett BN. Breed, gender, and age as risk factors for canine osteochondritis dissecans. Vet Comp Orthop Traum 1991; 4: 100-6.
- 5 Whitehair JG, Vasseur PB, Willits NH. Epidemiology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993; 203: 1016-9.
- 6 Priester WA, Schirmer TG, Rines MP. A one-year analysis of veterinary patients, diagnoses, and operations at Michigan State University. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1966; 148: 666-71.
- 7 Priester WA. A summary of diagnoses in the ox, horse, dog and cat from 12 veterinary school clinics in the US and Canada. Vet Rec 1970; 86: 654-8.
- 8 Humphreys JM. The incidence of diseases of small animals seen in a Melbourne clinic. Thesis. University of Sydney, 1986
- 9 Priester WA, Adelstein EH, Peters JA. Standard Nomenclature of Veterinary Diseases and Operations. First Edition, Revised. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office; 1966
- 10 SAS Institute Inc.. Language and Procedures: Usage. Version 6. First Edition. Cary, NC: 1989
- 11 Van Sickle DC. Selected orthopedic Problems in the Growing Dog. Monography by the Am An Hosp Assoc. 1975. Ed. R Bruce Hohn.
- 12 Grono LR. Treatment of femoral fractures in the dog. Austr Vet J 1964; 40: 172-6.
- 13 Alexander JW. Fractures in the pelvic limb, fractures in the pectoral limb, fractures of the pelvis. In: Leonard’s Orthopedic Surgery of the Dog and Cat. Alexander JW. (ed). Philadelphia: Saunders; 1990: 56-107.
- 14 Phillips IR. A survey of bone fractures in the dog and cat. J Sm Anim Pract 1979; 20: 661-74.
- 15 Kolata RJ, Johnston DE. Motor vehicle accidents in urban dogs: a study of 600 cases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1975; 167: 938-41.
- 16 Brinker WO, Piermattei DL, Flo GL. Handbook of Small Animal Orthopedics and Fracture Treatment. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1983: 75.
- 17 Egger EL. In: Textbook of Small Animal Surgery. Slatter DH. (ed). Second Edition. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1993: 1736-57.
- 18 Harari J, Dunning D. Fractures of the scapula in dogs: a retrospective review of 12 cases. Vet Comp Orthop Tr 1993; 6: 105-8.
- 19 Brody RS, Riser WH. Canine osteosarcoma: a clinico-pathologic of 194 cases. Clin orthop 1969; 62: 54.
- 20 Dorn CR. et al. Survey of animal neoplasms in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California. II. Cancer morbidity in dogs and cats from Alameda County. J Nat Cane Inst 1968; 40: 307-18.
- 21 Brodey RS, McGrath JT, Reynolds HA. A clinical and radiological study of canine bone neoplasms: part 1. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1959; 134: 53.
- 22 Brodey RS, Sauer RM, Medway W. Canine bone neoplasms. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1963; 143: 471.
- 23 Priester WA, Mckay FW. The Occurrence of Tumors in Domestic Animals. US Dept of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. NIH Pub #80-2046, 1980
- 24 Kistler KR. Canine osteosarcoma: 1462 cases reviewed to uncover patterns of height, weight, breed, sex, age and site involvement. Phi Zeta Awards 1981
- 25 Jongeward SJ. Primary bone tumors. Vet Clin North Am (Small Anim Pract) 1985; 15: 609-58.
- 26 MacVean DW. et al. Frequency of canine and feline tumors in a defined population. Vet Pathol 1978; 15: 700-15.
- 27 Schleithoff NS. Frequency of occurrence of skeletal lesions among adult dogs. Inaugural Dissertation, 1984. Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin der Freien Universitat Berlin.
- 28 Priester WA, Mulvihill JJ. Canine hip dysplasia: relative risk by sex, size, and breed and comparative aspects. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1972; 160: 735-9.
- 29 Grondalen J, Grondalen T. Arthrosis in the elbow joint of rapidly growing dogs. Nord Vet Med 1981; 33: 1-16.
- 30 Priester WA. Sex, size, and breed as risk factors in canine patellar dislocation. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1972; 160: 740-2.
- 31 Noonan TJ, Garrett WE. Injuries at the myotendinous junction. Clinics in Sports Medicine 1992; 2: 783-806.
- 32 Garrett WE. Muscle strain injuries: clinical and basic aspects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990; 22: 436-43.
- 33 Rudmann DG, Coolman BR, Perez CM, Glickman LT. Evaluation of risk factors for blastomycosis in dogs: 857 cases (1980-1990). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992; 201: 1754-9.
- 34 Panciera DL, Thomas CB, Eicker SW, Atkins CE. Epizootiologic patterns of diabetes mellitus in cats: 333 cases (1980-1986). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 197: 1504-8.